An adjuvant therapy is a treatment that you might have after your initial treatment for cancer, such as after surgery. It aims to lower the chance of your cancer coming back. Adjuvant therapies include chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormone therapy, targeted therapy and biological therapy.
Benign means your tumour isn’t cancerous. A benign tumour is made up of cells that are similar to normal ones. They usually grow quite slowly and don’t spread to other parts of your body. Benign tumours usually only cause problems if they grow very large, or press on other organs in your body. They can also affect you if they take up space inside your skull or release hormones that affect how your body works.
Biological therapy uses substances that act on cancer cells to stop them working normally, so they can’t grow or divide properly. Immunotherapy is a type of biological therapy that uses your immune system to work against cancer cells. There are several types of biological therapies, including monoclonal antibodies, cancer growth inhibitors, vaccines and gene therapy.
A biopsy is a small sample of tissue that is taken from your tumour, either in surgery or using a needle. A histopathologist (see below) examines the sample under a microscope to see if it has any cancerous cells in it.
A carcinogen is something that is known to cause cancer. For example, tobacco smoke is a carcinogen that is known to cause lung cancer. However, not everybody who smokes gets lung cancer so there are other factors that can play a part. These may include your age, diet, genetic make-up and immune system.
A carcinoma is cancer that can occur in most tissues of your body, in the cells that line your internal organs or skin. Other types of cancer include sarcoma, which is a cancer that begins in your bones, cartilage, fat, muscle or other connective tissue. Leukaemia is cancer that starts in your blood cells. Lymphoma and myeloma are cancers that begin in the cells of your immune system.
A clinical oncologist is a doctor who specialises in treating cancer with methods other than surgery, and is trained to use both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. A medical oncologist specialises in treatment with medicines, such as chemotherapy, hormone therapy and biological agents. Oncologists are likely to plan and supervise your overall treatment for cancer.
A histopathologist examines samples of tissue under a microscope to help diagnose diseases, such as cancer. They look for cancerous cells in a biopsy and help to plan any further tests and your treatment.
Hormonal therapy (sometimes known as endocrine therapy) can alter the production or activity of certain hormones in your body. Hormones help cells grow and are produced by glands in your body that make up what is called your endocrine system. Hormone therapy is mainly used to treat cancer when doctors think that hormones are causing the cancer cells to grow. These include breast cancer and prostate cancer. The type of hormonal therapy you have will depend on the type of cancer you have.
Carcinoma in situ is a term used to describe a cancer that is only present in the cells where it started. It hasn’t spread to anywhere else in your body.
Malignant means your tumour is cancerous. A malignant tumour is made up of cancerous cells. They usually grow faster than benign tumours and can spread into and destroy the tissue that surrounds them. A malignant tumour may spread to other parts of your body through your blood or lymphatic system. Your lymphatic system is a network of tissues and organs that produce and store cells that fight infection and disease.
A melanoma is an overgrowth of the pigmented or dark cells in your skin, either in a mole or in normal looking skin. It’s the most serious form of skin cancer but can be cured if it’s found early.
Metastatic cancer is cancer that has spread from one part of your body to another. It’s also known as secondary cancer. The most common parts of your body that cancer may spread to are your bones, liver and lungs. To find out more, see our information on cancer staging and grading.
Neoplasm is another name for a tumour – a lump of cells which can either be benign or malignant.
If your cancer can’t be treated successfully, palliative care offers a support system to help you and your family. This can help you manage symptoms caused by cancer, for example easing any pain, as well as aiming to improve your overall quality of life.
Primary cancer is where your cancer originally started. If your cancer has spread, this is known as secondary cancer. For example, lung cancer that has spread to your liver is primary lung cancer with secondary cancer in your liver.
Your prognosis is the likely result of your cancer. It could refer to your chance of recovery or the risk of the cancer coming back.
If your cancer is in remission, its signs and symptoms have either improved or disappeared. Cancer can be in complete or partial remission. In complete remission, all signs and symptoms of your cancer have gone. In partial remission, some, but not all, signs and symptoms have gone.
Staging describes the size of your tumour and how far it has spread within your body. This can help your doctor plan your treatment.
Systemic therapy is a treatment that reaches your whole body. Systemic therapy is usually in the form of chemotherapy, biological therapy or hormonal therapy.
Targeted therapy is a medicine that can block the growth and spread of cancer. It does this by interfering with how cancer cells grow.
A tumour is a word for a lump of cells that can either be benign or malignant. A tumour is also known as a neoplasm.
- Cancer Research UK
0808 800 4040
- Macmillan Cancer Support
0808 808 0000
- NCI dictionary of cancer terms. National Cancer Institute. www.cancer.gov, accessed 26 August 2014
- Glossary of cancer terms. Office for National Statistics. www.ons.gov.uk, published 12 January 2012
- Benign and malignant soft tissue tumors. Medscape. www.emedicine.medscape.com, published 29 May 2012
- Pituitary tumours. PatientPlus. www.patient.co.uk/patientplus, reviewed 29 April 2014
- Histopathology. The Royal College of Pathologists. www.rcpath.org, accessed 26 August 2014
- Glossary. Cancer Australia. www.canceraustralia.gov.au, published 28 January 2014
- Non-small cell lung cancer. Medscape. www.emedicine.medscape.com, published 6 June 2014
- A guide for patients with advanced cancer. European Society for Medical Oncology. www.esmo.org, published 2011
- Medical oncology. Medical Careers. www.medicalcareers.nhs.uk, accessed 27 August 2014
- Medical oncology. Royal College of Physicians. www.rcplondon.ac.uk, accessed 27 August 2014
- Malignant melanoma. Medscape. www.emedicine.medscape.com, published 10 April 2014
- Metastatic cancer. National Cancer Institute. www.cancer.gov, published 28 March 2013
- Opioids in palliative care: safe and effective prescribing of strong opioids for pain in palliative care of adults. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), May 2012. www.nice.org.uk
- Cancer Research UK
We’d love to know what you think about what you’ve just been reading and looking at – we’ll use it to improve our information. If you’d like to give us some feedback, our short form below will take just a few minutes to complete. And if there's a question you want to ask that hasn't been answered here, please submit it to us. Although we can't respond to specific questions directly, we’ll aim to include the answer to it when we next review this topic.
Let us know what you think using our short feedback form Ask us a question
Reviewed by Rachael Mayfield-Blake, Bupa Health Content Team, November 2014.
Let us know what you think using our short feedback form Ask us a question
About our health information
At Bupa we produce a wealth of free health information for you and your family. We believe that trustworthy information is essential in helping you make better decisions about your health and care. Here are just a few of the ways in which our core editorial principles have been recognised.
Information StandardWe are certified by the Information Standard. This quality mark identifies reliable, trustworthy producers and sources of health information.
What our readers say about us
But don't just take our word for it; here's some feedback from our readers.
“Simple and easy to use website - not alarming, just helpful.”
“It’s informative but not too detailed. I like that it’s factual and realistic about the conditions and the procedures involved. It’s also easy to navigate to areas that you specifically want without having to read all the information.”
“Good information, easy to find, trustworthy.”
Meet the team
Head of health content and clinical engagement
- Dylan Merkett – Lead Editor – UK Customer
- Nick Ridgman – Lead Editor – UK Health and Care Services
- Natalie Heaton – Specialist Editor – User Experience
- Pippa Coulter – Specialist Editor – Content Library
- Alice Rossiter – Specialist Editor – Insights
- Laura Blanks – Specialist Editor – Quality
- Michelle Harrison – Editorial Assistant
Our core principles
All our health content is produced in line with our core editorial principles – readable, reliable, relevant – which are represented by our diagram.
In a nutshell, our information is jargon-free, concise and accessible. We know our audience and we meet their health information needs, helping them to take the next step in their health and wellbeing journey.
We use the best quality and most up-to-date evidence to produce our information. Our process is transparent and validated by experts – both our users and medical specialists.
We know that our users want the right information at the right time, in the way that suits them. So we review our content at least every three years to keep it fresh. And we’re embracing new technology and social media so they can get it whenever and wherever they choose.
Here are just a few of the ways in which the quality of our information has been recognised.
The Information Standard certification scheme
You will see the Information Standard quality mark on our content. This is a certification programme, supported by NHS England, that was developed to ensure that public-facing health and care information is created to a set of best practice principles.
It uses only recognised evidence sources and presents the information in a clear and balanced way. The Information Standard quality mark is a quick and easy way for you to identify reliable and trustworthy producers and sources of information.
Certified by the Information Standard as a quality provider of health and social care information. Bupa shall hold responsibility for the accuracy of the information they publish and neither the Scheme Operator nor the Scheme Owner shall have any responsibility whatsoever for costs, losses or direct or indirect damages or costs arising from inaccuracy of information or omissions in information published on the website on behalf of Bupa.
British Medical Association (BMA) patient information awards
We have received a number of BMA awards for different assets over the years. Most recently, in 2013, we received a 'commended' award for our online shared decision making hub.
If you have any feedback on our health information, we would love to hear from you. Please contact us via email: email@example.com. Or you can write to us:
Health Content Team
15-19 Bloomsbury Way