Acute pancreatitis can be a life-threatening illness with severe complications. Symptoms come on suddenly or develop over a few days, and may be worse after eating. Although the pain may be mild at first, it can become severe and may last continuously for a few days. Symptoms include:
- severe pain in your upper abdomen (tummy)
- loss of appetite
- feeling sick and vomiting
- a temperature higher than 37.5°C
- a swollen abdomen
- a rapid pulse
If acute pancreatitis is very severe, it may also lead to dehydration and a drop in blood pressure.
If the inflammation is severe or recurrent, your pancreas can be permanently damaged, leading to chronic pancreatitis. Symptoms of chronic pancreatitis are similar to those for acute pancreatitis, but the pain is likely to be less severe and you won’t have a fever. Additional symptoms of chronic pancreatitis include:
- pale-coloured, oily faeces
- weight loss (even though you’re eating normally) and tiredness
These symptoms aren't always caused by pancreatitis but if you have them, see your GP. You may need to seek urgent medical attention if your symptoms are severe.
Symptoms of acute pancreatitis can be severe enough to require immediate hospital treatment. Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and examine you. He or she may also ask you about your medical history, and about how much alcohol you drink.
You may have blood tests to check your levels of digestive enzymes as these can be at least three times the normal level if you have acute pancreatitis. You may have one or more of the following scans to check your pancreas, gallbladder, pancreatic duct and bile ducts.
- Abdominal ultrasound – this uses sound waves to produce images of the inside of your body.
- CT scan - this uses X-rays are used to make three-dimensional pictures of the inside of your body.
- Endoscopic ultrasound – a narrow, flexible, tube-like telescopic camera called an endoscope is passed down your throat, through your stomach and into your small bowel. An ultrasound sensor produces sound waves to create pictures of your pancreas and bile ducts. This procedure can sometimes trigger an attack of acute pancreatitis.
- Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) – this is an MRI scan that uses magnets and radio waves to produce images of the inside of your body. You will lie inside a cylinder-shaped scanner and a dye is injected into a vein that helps to show cross-section pictures of your pancreas and related organs, such as your gallbladder and bile ducts.
You may have other tests, especially if your doctor thinks you have chronic pancreatitis, such as a test to measure how much isn’t being absorbed by your gut.
Treatment of acute pancreatitis
Most people with acute pancreatitis need hospital treatment. Treatment usually consists of controlling pain, treating the inflammation and resting your pancreas until symptoms improve. To help your pancreas rest, you won’t be able to eat or drink for a few days so you will be given fluids, antibiotics and medicine for pain relief through a drip inserted into a vein in your hand or arm. Depending on the severity of your symptoms and any complications, you may need to stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) at the hospital. See our frequently asked questions for more information.
If you vomit, a tube may be placed through your nose into your stomach to remove fluids and air. If your condition is very severe, and especially if you’re losing a lot of weight, you may need to have nasogastric feeding – this is when a long, thin tube is inserted through your nose and throat into your stomach. The tube will deliver a special liquid into your stomach until your pancreas heals. It may also be used to help remove fluid and air, particularly if you continue to feel sick and vomit.
When your symptoms have improved, your doctor will do further tests to determine the cause and degree of damage to your pancreas.You may need surgery to remove your gallbladder if your symptoms are caused by gallstones. Surgery may be delayed until your symptoms have improved so that the risks associated with your operation are reduced.
Treatment of chronic pancreatitis
The treatment for chronic pancreatitis depends on what problems the condition is causing – this will vary from person to person. Wherever possible, treatment aims to correct the underlying cause, relieve pain, treat problems with food absorption and reverse weight loss.
In general terms, chronic pancreatitis is managed by trying to prevent future attacks, making lifestyle changes to reduce the risk of further damage to your pancreas and by treating the damage that has already been done.
For chronic pancreatitis, your GP may prescribe the following medicines to help you manage your condition.
- Painkillers to relieve chronic pain.
- Synthetic pancreatic enzymes, such as pancreatin (eg Creon, Nutrizym, Pancrex), to replace the enzymes your pancreas can no longer make and to help reverse problems with absorption of fat.
- Insulin or other medicines to control your blood sugar level. If your pancreas isn't producing enough insulin, you may develop type 1 diabetes.
Always read the patient information leaflet that comes with your medicine and if you have any questions, ask your GP or pharmacist for advice.
Surgery for chronic pancreatitis
Your doctor may recommend surgery if you have chronic pancreatitis, although this isn’t suitable for everyone. Operations that you may have include:
- draining the affected part of your pancreas
- draining cysts that have formed as a complication of chronic pancreatitis
- removal of the most damaged parts of your pancreas
The most common causes of pancreatitis are:
- drinking excessive amounts of alcohol
- having gallstones (small pebble-like stones made of hardened bile) in your bile duct
Other causes include:
- certain medicines, such as sodium valproate, azathioprine, furosemide and corticosteroids
- abdominal injuries
- a tumour in your pancreas
- damage caused by surgery or endoscopy
- autoimmune problems
- a viral infection, such as mumps or the Epstein-Barr virus
- increased calcium or fat levels in your blood
- pancreas divisum – being born with ducts in your pancreas that don't function properly
- genetics – you may inherit a faulty gene from your parents (this is called hereditary pancreatitis)
- cystic fibrosis
- inflammation of the blood vessels in your pancreas or reduced blood flow to your pancreas
Acute pancreatitis can become chronic if pancreatic tissue is destroyed and scarring develops, or if the underlying cause, for example, drinking alcohol to excess, has not been managed. In some people who develop chronic pancreatitis, the cause isn’t known.
Complications of acute pancreatitis can include:
- some of your pancreatic tissue dying, which can lead to an abscess
- fluid-filled cysts developing around your pancreas
- bleeding in your pancreas
Complications of chronic pancreatitis can include the above, as well as:
You can help to prevent pancreatitis by eating a healthy diet and not drinking excessive amounts of alcohol. See our frequently asked questions for more information.
If you have a bout of acute pancreatitis or are diagnosed with chronic pancreatitis, you will need to make lifestyle changes to help manage your condition and prevent further attacks.
Your doctor will suggest you drink sensibly and eat a low-fat diet – a dietitian can help you to plan an appropriate diet. You may also need to take vitamin and enzyme supplements. If you have developed diabetes, your doctor will tell you about changes that you may need to make to your diet and how to measure your blood sugar.
What lifestyle changes should I make after having pancreatitis?
One of the most valuable lifestyle changes you can make after having pancreatitis is to drink sensibly and eat a healthy, low-fat diet.
The most common cause of pancreatitis is drinking excessive amounts of alcohol. To help reduce your risk of pancreatitis, make sure you don’t drink more than the recommended daily limits of alcohol (two to three units a day for women and three to four units for men) and eat a diet that is low in fatty and sugary foods.
If you're diagnosed with chronic pancreatitis, it's even more important to start making changes to your eating and drinking habits. You may need to stop drinking alcohol altogether and if you smoke, make a plan to stop. If you’re in the early stages of chronic pancreatitis as a result of drinking too much alcohol, cutting it out completely can mean you no longer have any pain. Your GP or dietitian can offer advice about your diet.
If your pancreas isn't functioning properly, you may need to take pancreatic enzyme supplements to help digest food. You may also need to take insulin to control your blood sugar levels.
Ask your GP for advice about managing your condition.
Does smoking cause pancreatitis?
There is research that suggests that smoking is linked to pancreatitis.
Pancreatitis can be caused by a number of things and research has suggested that smoking may be a contributory factor. Studies looking at the effects of smoking on the risk of pancreatitis have found that smoking is associated with an increased risk of both acute and chronic pancreatitis. This is particularly true for chronic pancreatitis when combined with heavy drinking of alcohol.
Smoking also increases the risk of pancreatic cancer and research has found that there is a link in nearly one in three people who develop the disease. This may be because smoke contains a chemical called nitrosamine that is thought to be linked to pancreatic cancer.
What is the risk of developing pancreatic cancer after chronic pancreatitis?
This depends on what has caused your chronic pancreatitis. About five in 10 people who have inherited a rare gene from one of their parents that leads to pancreatitis will develop pancreatic cancer.
The risk of pancreatic cancer is higher if you have inherited a gene that causes a type of chronic pancreatitis called hereditary pancreatitis. If the cause of your chronic pancreatitis is alcohol, your risk is much lower. Most people who develop pancreatic cancer haven’t previously had pancreatitis.
How long will I stay in hospital with acute pancreatitis?
This depends on how severe your acute pancreatitis is and whether you develop any complications. Ask the doctor who is treating you for advice.
You may need to be treated in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a hospital after an attack of acute pancreatitis, but you may then be moved to a different room or ward. Your doctor can advise you about how long he or she expects you to stay in hospital for your treatment. This can range from a few days to several months depending on how severe your acute pancreatitis is.
What should I do if acute pancreatitis comes back?
If your symptoms come back, see your GP immediately or go straight to the accident and emergency department at the hospital.
Acute pancreatitis can be serious and will require hospital treatment. After you have had an attack of acute pancreatitis, your doctor will do tests to try to find out the cause. He or she may then be able to give you advice on how to prevent it reoccurring. For example, you may be advised to not smoke, drink alcohol or eat foods that are high in fat. Speak to your GP for advice about how to prevent acute pancreatitis from coming back.
Will chronic pancreatitis ever go away?
No, although chronic pancreatitis can be treated, it can't be cured.
Once your pancreas is damaged, it can never work properly again. Chronic pancreatitis is a serious condition that usually develops after several attacks of acute pancreatitis, but you can also develop it if you have never had acute pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis leads to inflammation and the development of scar tissue and, gradually, your pancreas is destroyed. Therefore, it's important that you get the treatment and guidance that you need as early as possible.
Specialist doctors and nurses are experts in providing the care and support you need. There are support groups where you can meet people who may have similar experiences to you. Ask your GP for advice.
- Pancreatitis. National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC). www.digestive.niddk.nih.gov, published August 2012
- Pancreatitis. Core. www.corecharity.org.uk, accessed 23 May 2012
- Information about chronic pancreatitis. Core. www.corecharity.org.uk, published December 2011
- Pancreatitis. Lab Tests Online UK. www.labtestsonline.org.uk, published October 2011
- Acute pancreatitis. eMedicine. www.emedicine.medscape.com, published December 2011
- Pancreatic cancer risks and causes. CancerHelp UK (Cancer Research UK). http://cancerhelp.cancerresearchuk.org, published June 2012
- Acute pancreatitis. The Merck Manuals. www.merckmanuals.com, published August 2007
- Chronic pancreatitis. eMedicine. www.emedicine.medscape.com, published March 2012
- Tolstrup JS, Kristiansen L, Becker U, et al. Smoking and risk of acute and chronic pancreatitis among women and men: a population-based cohort study. Arch Intern Med 2009; 169(6):603–9. www.archinternmed.com
- DiMagno MJ, DiMagno EP. Chronic pancreatitis. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2010; 26(5):490–498. doi: 10.1097/MOG.0b013e32833d11b2
- Pancreatic necrosis and pancreatic abscess. eMedicine. www.emedicine.medscape.com, published September 2012
- What are the risk factors for pancreatic cancer? American Cancer Society. www.cancer.org, published January 2012
- Chronic pancreatitis. BMJ Best Practice. www.bestpractice.bmj.com, published August 2012
- LAP Research UK. Pancreatitis. www.lapresearchuk.com, accessed 25 October 2012
We’d love to know what you think about what you’ve just been reading and looking at – we’ll use it to improve our information. If you’d like to give us some feedback, our short form below will take just a few minutes to complete. And if there's a question you want to ask that hasn't been answered here, please submit it to us. Although we can't respond to specific questions directly, we’ll aim to include the answer to it when we next review this topic.
Let us know what you think using our short feedback form Ask us a question
Produced by Polly Kerr, Bupa Health Information Team, November 2012.
Let us know what you think using our short feedback form Ask us a question
About our health information
At Bupa we produce a wealth of free health information for you and your family. We believe that trustworthy information is essential in helping you make better decisions about your health and care. Here are just a few of the ways in which our core editorial principles have been recognised.
Information StandardWe are certified by the Information Standard. This quality mark identifies reliable, trustworthy producers and sources of health information.
HONcodeThis site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information.
What our readers say about us
But don't just take our word for it; here's some feedback from our readers.
“Simple and easy to use website - not alarming, just helpful.”
“It’s informative but not too detailed. I like that it’s factual and realistic about the conditions and the procedures involved. It’s also easy to navigate to areas that you specifically want without having to read all the information.”
“Good information, easy to find, trustworthy.”
Meet the team
Head of health content and clinical engagement
- Dylan Merkett – Lead Editor- UK Customer
- Nicholas Ridgman – Lead Editor – UK Health and Care Services
- Natalie Heaton – Specialist Editor – User Experience
- Pippa Coulter – Specialist Editor – Content Library
- Alice Rossiter – Specialist Editor – Insights
- Laura Blanks – Specialist Editor – Quality
- Michelle Harrison – Editorial Assistant
Our core principles
All our health content is produced in line with our core editorial principles – readable, reliable, relevant – which are represented by our diagram.
In a nutshell, our information is jargon-free, concise and accessible. We know our audience and we meet their health information needs, helping them to take the next step in their health and wellbeing journey.
We use the best quality and most up-to-date evidence to produce our information. Our process is transparent and validated by experts – both our users and medical specialists.
We know that our users want the right information at the right time, in the way that suits them. So we review our content at least every three years to keep it fresh. And we’re embracing new technology and social media so they can get it whenever and wherever they choose.
Here are just a few of the ways in which the quality of our information has been recognised.
The Information Standard certification scheme
You will see the Information Standard quality mark on our content. This is a certification programme, supported by NHS England, that was developed to ensure that public-facing health and care information is created to a set of best practice principles.
It uses only recognised evidence sources and presents the information in a clear and balanced way. The Information Standard quality mark is a quick and easy way for you to identify reliable and trustworthy producers and sources of information.
Certified by the Information Standard as a quality provider of health and social care information. Bupa shall hold responsibility for the accuracy of the information they publish and neither the Scheme Operator nor the Scheme Owner shall have any responsibility whatsoever for costs, losses or direct or indirect damages or costs arising from inaccuracy of information or omissions in information published on the website on behalf of Bupa.
Plain English Campaign
Our website is approved by the Plain English Campaign and carries their Crystal Mark for clear information. In 2010, we won the award for best website.
Website approved by Plain English Campaign.
British Medical Association (BMA) patient information awards
We have received a number of BMA awards for different assets over the years. Most recently, in 2013, we received a 'commended' award for our online shared decision making hub.
If you have any feedback on our health information, we would love to hear from you. Please contact us via email: email@example.com. Or you can write to us:
Health Content Team
15-19 Bloomsbury Way