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Childbirth - vaginal delivery

Further information


  • Intrapartum care: care of healthy women and their babies during childbirth. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), September 2007.
  • Maternity data 2010–11. HESonline., published 2011
  • Sandall J, Soltani H, Gates S, et al. Midwife-led continuity models versus other models of care for childbearing women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 8. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004667.pub3
  • Arulkumaran S, Symonds I, Fowlie A. Oxford handbook of obstetrics and gynaecology. 1st ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2004
  • Blott M. The day-by-day pregnancy book. 1st ed. London: Dorling Kindersley; 2009
  • Guide to labour. NCT., accessed 22 February 2012
  • Begley C, Gyte G, Devane D, et al. Active versus expectant management for women in the third stage of labour. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 11. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007412.pub3
  • Joint Formulary Committee. British National Formulary. 63rd ed. London: British Medical Association and Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain; 2012
  • Induction of labour. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), July 2008.
  • Your third trimester: how your body is preparing for labour. Emma's Diary., accessed 7 February 2012
  • Home births. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists/Royal College of Midwives., published April 2007
  • Olsen O, Jewell D. Home versus hospital birth. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 1998, Issue 3. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000352
  • The Pregnancy Book 2009. Department of Health., published 29 October 2009
  • Cluett E, Burns E. Immersion in water in labour and birth. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 2. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000111.pub3
  • Multiple pregnancy: the management of twin and triplet pregnancies in the antenatal period. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), September 2011.
  • Smith C, Collins C, Cyna A, et al. Complementary and alternative therapies for pain management in labour. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 4. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003521.pub2

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  • This information was published by Bupa's Health Information Team and is based on reputable sources of medical evidence. It has been reviewed by appropriate medical or clinical professionals. Photos are only for illustrative purposes and do not reflect every presentation of a condition. The content is intended only for general information and does not replace the need for personal advice from a qualified health professional. For more details on how we produce our content and its sources, visit the about our health information page.

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