A thoracic aortic aneurysm is a widening or bulging of the aorta in your chest (thorax). If the aneurysm bursts (ruptures), it can be fatal.
The aorta is the largest blood vessel in your body and carries all the blood that is pumped out of your heart and distributes it, via its many branches, to all the organs in your body. The aorta passes upwards from your heart before it curves backwards and downwards, and travels through your chest (the thoracic aorta) and into your abdomen (the abdominal aorta).
The aorta is usually 2 to 3cm (about one inch) in diameter. A weak spot in the aorta can cause it to bulge outwards and this is called an aneurysm. If the bulge occurs in the aorta as it goes through your chest, it's called a thoracic aortic aneurysm. If it occurs in the aorta as it goes through your abdomen, it's called an abdominal aortic aneurysm. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are more common than thoracic aneurysms. You can have more than one aneurysm at the same time.
Most people who get a thoracic aneurysm are over 50 and they’re three times more common in men than in women.
You may not have any symptoms of a thoracic aortic aneurysm. However, if it starts to expand and push on surrounding tissue or nerves in your chest, it can cause:
These symptoms aren't always caused by a thoracic aortic aneurysm but if you have them, see your GP.
If the aneurysm ruptures it will cause severe internal bleeding. This will be fatal without emergency surgery to repair it. The chance of an aneurysm rupturing depends on its size. If your aneurysm is greater than 5.5cm wide, the chances of rupture are high – and the risk increases with increasing size.
If your thoracic aneurysm ruptures you will get severe pain in your chest. If you have this symptom, you must seek urgent medical attention.
Complications of a thoracic aortic aneurysm can include the following.
A thoracic aneurysm develops when the wall of your aorta weakens, which causes it to bulge. The exact reasons why your aorta weakens aren't fully understood at present.
Many people with a thoracic aneurysm also have atherosclerosis. This is a process in which fatty deposits build up on the inside of your arteries and weaken the artery walls.
You’re more likely to develop an aneurysm if you:
You may not have any symptoms of a thoracic aortic aneurysm, unless it’s large or is expanding quickly. Your GP will ask about your symptoms, if you have any, and examine you.
If your GP suspects that you have a thoracic aortic aneurysm, you may have other tests in hospital, which may include the following.
At present there is no national screening programme in the UK to detect thoracic aortic aneurysms, only abdominal aortic aneurysms. However, ultrasound scans to screen for the condition are available from private clinics and hospitals.
Your treatment for a thoracic aortic aneurysm will depend on your symptoms and the size of your aneurysm.
If you have a small aneurysm, your doctor won’t usually advise you to have surgery but you will need regular ultrasound checks to see if your aneurysm is expanding. It's also important to manage your condition by changing your lifestyle and treating any condition that may be causing the aneurysm (such as high blood pressure).
Your doctor will advise you to have elective (planned) surgery if your aneurysm is:
You will need to have emergency surgery if your aneurysm ruptures.
There are three main surgical options for a thoracic aortic aneurysm.
In open surgery for aortic aneurysm, your surgeon will open your chest to gain access to your aorta. He or she will insert a graft into the weak area of your aorta. The graft will be synthetic and made out of an elastic material. Blood will flow through the graft inside your aorta instead of going through the aneurysm and this will prevent the aneurysm getting bigger.
In keyhole surgery, your surgeon will make two or three small cuts in your chest and will insert a tube-like telescopic camera, which will send pictures to a monitor so he or she can see the aneurysm. Your surgeon passes specially designed surgical instruments through the other cuts to put the graft into place. However, keyhole surgery isn't suitable for everybody – ask your doctor if it’s an option for you.
Endovascular stent graft replacement
In endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), your surgeon will feed a stent – a tube that is covered with synthetic graft material – through the femoral arteries in your groin, up through your aorta to the area of the aneurysm. Your surgeon will use X-ray images to guide the placement of the stent. The graft material will bond with the arterial wall and blood will flow through the stent instead of the weakened aneurysm. However, stents aren't suitable for everyone, it depends on the location of the aneurysm and other factors. Ask your doctor for more information.
There are several things you can do to reduce your chance of developing an aneurysm – and the associated risk factor of atherosclerosis – including:
It’s important to have regular medical check-ups if you have a family history of arterial disease so that any problems can be detected early.
Produced by Rachael Mayfield-Blake, Bupa Health Information Team, June 2012.
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