When picking a toothbrush to clean your child’s teeth, you should choose one with a small head that will fit into your child’s mouth comfortably. A toothbrush with bristles that are neither too hard nor soft is also ideal.
Keep a close eye on the condition of your child’s tooth brush. Children’s brushes aren’t as robust as adult brushes and so become worn out quicker. You should replace your child’s toothbrush every three months or earlier if the bristles lose their strength and splay. If the bristles are splayed, you won’t get a thorough clean as they’ll miss certain surfaces.
There are lots of different toothpastes available, which can make it hard to know which toothpaste is best for your child’s teeth. To help prevent tooth decay, it’s best to pick a toothpaste that contains something called fluoride. Fluoride can help to protect your child’s enamel and hinder any plaque bacteria that may contribute to tooth decay.
For all children between the ages of zero and six, a toothpaste containing 1350–1500ppm (parts per million) of fluoride is best. Use a smear of toothpaste spread along a toothbrush to clean your child’s teeth if they’re under the age of three. If your child is between the ages of three and six, you should use no more than a pea-sized amount of toothpaste to clean their teeth.
4. Know how often, and for how long, they should brush their teeth 4. Know how often, and for how long, they should brush their teeth
Your child should brush their teeth at least twice a day; once in the evening before bed, and at one other time during the day.
Steve Preddy, Bupa’s Dental Clinical Director says, “If you have young children, it’s a good idea, if practical, to make brushing your teeth a family affair. Children tend to learn quickly by copying behaviour from adults or older siblings. Brush your teeth with your children in the morning before they go to school, and in the evening before going to bed to get them into a good routine.”
Brushing helps to prevent tooth decay by removing plaque and any food that may be stuck on their teeth. There isn’t one technique that’s best. But you should encourage your child to brush each tooth individually and for long enough to get a proper clean - brushing for two minutes is about right.
Food and drink that contain lots of added sugar (also called ‘free’ sugars) such as sweets, cakes and non-diet fizzy drinks are bad for your child’s teeth. When your child has them, bacteria on their teeth convert the sugars to acid. This acid strips minerals from the surface of their teeth, damaging their enamel. After a while the acid is normally neutralised by saliva and their teeth begin to repair. However, if your child regularly snacks on sugary food and drink, the surface of their teeth is damaged and doesn’t have enough time to repair before more acid is consumed. This can lead to tooth decay.
Food and drink that is itself acidic can also directly damage your child’s enamel, causing dental erosion. To help prevent this, try to limit acidic food and drink to meal times when more saliva (which can neutralise acid) is produced. You should also encourage your child to finish their meals with a dairy-based product to help neutralise the acid in their mouth. Milk and other dairy products (such as cheese) are also important as they contain lots of calcium which will help keep your child’s teeth strong.
Getting your child familiar with the dentist is important. Regular visits not only help your child feel comfortable, but also allow the dentist to monitor your child’s oral health and resolve any issues before they develop. You should start taking your child to the dentist when their first teeth come through, and for check-ups between every three to 12 months.
You child will start to get their first teeth at around six months. As soon as this happens you should begin to brush their teeth. You should carry on helping them until they’re about six or seven years old. As your child gets older, let them brush their own teeth in the morning (while you supervise) to let them get used to it. In the evening brush their teeth for them to make sure their teeth get a thorough clean.
FAQ: Thumb sucking and children’s teeth If my child sucks their thumb, will this affect their teeth?
Thumb sucking will only affect your child’s teeth if they continue to do it up until the age where their permanent teeth begin to come through their gums. This is when they’re around six.
Thumb sucking is a calm and comforting habit. It’s fairly normal for your child to do this when they’re a baby and most children grow out of it with some encouragement. But if your child continues to suck their thumb, it can cause their teeth to grow in the wrong position, or so they don’t align properly when they bite. This may need to be corrected with dental treatment when they get older.
Comfort sucking on sugary drinks in bottles or beakers can cause tooth decay. Encouraging your child to drink from a cup rather than a bottle or beaker helps them progress from sucking, to sipping and swallowing, and prevent damage to their teeth. You should start to introduce drinking from a cup to your child when they’re around six months old. When your child is 12 months, you should encourage them to always drink from a cup.
- Teething. NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries. cks.nice.org.uk, reviewed May 2014
- Delivering better oral health: an evidence-based toolkit for prevention. Public Health England. www.gov.uk, published June 2014
- Frequently asked questions. The Center for Pediatric Dentistry. www.thecenterforpediatricdentistry.com, accessed April 2016
- Toothbrush care: cleaning, storing and replacement. American Dental Association. www.ada.org, published November 2011
- Hand A, Frank M. Fundamentals of oral histology and physiology. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, 2014
- Prevention and management of dental caries in children: Dental clinical guidance. Scottish Dental Clinical Effectiveness programme. www.sdcep.org.uk, published April 2010
- Sugar. The British Dietetic Association. www.bda.uk.com, reviewed October 2015
- Nutrition in gastrointestinal disease. Oxford handbook of nutrition and dietetics (online). Oxford Medicine Online. www.oxfordmedicine.com, published January 2012
- Micronutrients. Oxford handbook of nutrition and dietetics. Oxford Medicines (online). www.oxfordmedicines.com, published January 2012
- Dental checks: intervals between oral health reviews. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), October 2004. www.nice.org.uk
- Koch G, Poulsen S. Paediatric dentistry: A clinical approach. 2nd ed. Copenhagen: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2009
- Borrie F, Bearn D, Innes N, et al. Interventions for the cessation of non-nutritive sucking habits in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2015, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD008694. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008694.pub2.
- Common behavioural problems in children. PatientPlus. www.patient.info/patientplus, reviewed March 2016
- Colak H, Dulgergil C, Dalli M, et al. Early childhood caries update: A review of causes, diagnosis and treatments. J Nat Sci Biol Med. 2013; 4(1) 29–38. doi: 10.4103/0976-9668.107257
- Infants and preschool children. Oxford handbook of nutrition and dietetics (online). Oxford Medicines Online. www.oxfordmedicines.com, published January 2012
- Dr Steve Preddy, Bupa Dental Clinical Director, April 2016
We’d love to know what you think about what you’ve just been reading and looking at – we’ll use it to improve our information. If you’d like to give us some feedback, our short form below will take just a few minutes to complete. And if there's a question you want to ask that hasn't been answered here, please submit it to us. Although we can't respond to specific questions directly, we’ll aim to include the answer to it when we next review this topic.
Let us know what you think using our short feedback form Ask us a question
Reviewed by Laura Blanks, Specialist Health Editor – Quality, Bupa Health Content Team, April 2016.
Peer reviewed by Dr Steve Preddy, Bupa Dental Clinical Director.
About our health information
At Bupa we produce a wealth of free health information for you and your family. We believe that trustworthy information is essential in helping you make better decisions about your health and care. Here are just a few of the ways in which our core editorial principles have been recognised.
Information StandardWe are certified by the Information Standard. This quality mark identifies reliable, trustworthy producers and sources of health information.
What our readers say about us
But don't just take our word for it; here's some feedback from our readers.
“Simple and easy to use website - not alarming, just helpful.”
“It’s informative but not too detailed. I like that it’s factual and realistic about the conditions and the procedures involved. It’s also easy to navigate to areas that you specifically want without having to read all the information.”
“Good information, easy to find, trustworthy.”
Meet the team
Head of Health Content
- Dylan Merkett – Lead Editor
- Natalie Heaton – Specialist Editor, User Experience
- Pippa Coulter – Specialist Editor, Content Library
- Alice Rossiter – Specialist Editor, Insights
- Laura Blanks – Specialist Editor, Quality
- Michelle Harrison – Editorial Assistant
Our core principles
All our health content is produced in line with our core editorial principles – readable, reliable, relevant – which are represented by our diagram.
In a nutshell, our information is jargon-free, concise and accessible. We know our audience and we meet their health information needs, helping them to take the next step in their health and wellbeing journey.
We use the best quality and most up-to-date evidence to produce our information. Our process is transparent and validated by experts – both our users and medical specialists.
We know that our users want the right information at the right time, in the way that suits them. So we review our content at least every three years to keep it fresh. And we’re embracing new technology and social media so they can get it whenever and wherever they choose.
Here are just a few of the ways in which the quality of our information has been recognised.
The Information Standard certification scheme
You will see the Information Standard quality mark on our content. This is a certification programme, supported by NHS England, that was developed to ensure that public-facing health and care information is created to a set of best practice principles.
It uses only recognised evidence sources and presents the information in a clear and balanced way. The Information Standard quality mark is a quick and easy way for you to identify reliable and trustworthy producers and sources of information.
Certified by the Information Standard as a quality provider of health and social care information. Bupa shall hold responsibility for the accuracy of the information they publish and neither the Scheme Operator nor the Scheme Owner shall have any responsibility whatsoever for costs, losses or direct or indirect damages or costs arising from inaccuracy of information or omissions in information published on the website on behalf of Bupa.
British Medical Association (BMA) patient information awards
We have received a number of BMA awards for different assets over the years. Most recently, in 2013, we received a 'commended' award for our online shared decision making hub.
If you have any feedback on our health information, we would love to hear from you. Please contact us via email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Or you can write to us:
Health Content Team
15-19 Bloomsbury Way