Cookies on the Bupa website

We use cookies to help us understand ease of use and relevance of content. This ensures that we can give you the best experience on our website. If you continue, we'll assume that you are happy to receive cookies for this purpose. Find out more about cookies



Knee arthroscopy

Knee arthroscopy is a type of keyhole surgery to look inside your knee joint to find out more about problems, such as inflammation or an injury. You can also have treatment during a knee arthroscopy, for example, your surgeon may repair or remove any damaged tissue and cartilage. Your surgeon can also take small tissue samples (biopsies), which can help to diagnose problems such as infection.

Your surgeon will use an arthroscope (a thin metal tube that contains a camera) and small surgical instruments during the procedure. Images are shown on a screen. These images can be saved so your surgeon or doctor can show you them to explain what’s wrong with your knee. You should recover from arthroscopy more quickly than if you have open surgery.

Your care may not be quite as we describe here as it will be designed to meet your individual needs. But you’ll meet the surgeon carrying out your procedure beforehand to discuss what will be involved.

Read more Close
Knee arthroscopy
How the operation is carried out
An image showing the different parts of the knee


  • Preparation Preparing for a knee arthroscopy

    Your surgeon will explain how to prepare for your operation. For example if you smoke, it’s best to stop, as this increases your risk of a chest or wound infection, which can slow your recovery.

    A knee arthroscopy is usually done as a day case, which means you will have the procedure and go home on the same day.

    You will usually have a knee arthroscopy under general anaesthesia but you might be able to have it under local anaesthesia. If you have a general anaesthetic, you’ll be asleep during the procedure. A local anaesthetic completely blocks pain from your knee and you’ll stay awake during the operation. Your surgeon may offer you a sedative, which can relieve anxiety and help you to relax.

    A general anaesthetic can make you sick so it’s important that you don’t eat or drink anything for six hours before your arthroscopy. Follow your anaesthetist or surgeon’s advice. If you have any questions, just ask.

    Your surgeon will discuss with you what will happen before, during and after your procedure, and any pain you might have. This is your opportunity to understand exactly what will happen. You might find it helpful to prepare some questions to ask about the risks, benefits and alternatives to the procedure. This will help you to know as much as possible about the procedure so you can give your consent for it to go ahead. You will be asked to sign a consent form.

    You may need to wear a compression stocking on your other (unaffected) leg to keep your blood flowing. You may need to have an injection of an anticlotting medicine called heparin too.

    An image showing the different parts of the knee 

    Bupa On Demand: Knee arthroscopy

    Want to talk to a Bupa consultant about knee treatments? We’ll aim to get you seen the next day. Prices from £250.

  • Alternatives What are the alternatives to knee arthroscopy?

    Your doctor may be able to diagnose your knee problem by examining your knee or doing an X-ray or MRI scan. An MRI scan uses magnets and radio waves to produce images of the inside of your knee.

    Some knee problems can be treated using physiotherapy and medicines.

  • The Bupa knee clinic The Bupa knee clinic

    Bupa's online knee clinic
  • During the procedure What happens during a knee arthroscopy?

    During the procedure, once the anaesthetic has taken effect, your surgeon will make small cuts in the skin around your knee. They will put sterile fluid into your knee joint to rinse it out. This will help your surgeon to see the inside of your knee better. Your surgeon will then insert the arthroscope and examine your knee joint by looking at images that are sent to a monitor. They may use instruments, such as scissors or lasers, to repair or remove any damaged tissue, such as cartilage or ligaments.

    Your surgeon will then drain the fluid out and close the cuts with stitches or adhesive strips, and wrap a dressing around your knee.

    Your knee arthroscopy will take at least 30 minutes, depending on how much work your surgeon needs to do inside your knee joint.


    Knee arthroscopy
    Play video
    Knee arthroscopy
    How the operation is carried out
  • Aftercare What to expect afterwards?

    You will need to rest until the effects of the anaesthetic have passed. It may take several hours before the feeling comes back into your knee. Take care not to bump or knock it.

    You might have some discomfort as the anaesthetic wears off. But you’ll be offered pain relief as you need it.

    You’ll usually be able to go home when you feel ready. Make sure someone can take you home. And ask someone to stay with you for a day or so while the anaesthetic wears off.

    You might not be able to put weight on your leg so may need some help to stand or walk. Your hospital may give you crutches or a walking frame to take home. Your surgeon or nurse will give you advice on how to use these, and for how long.

    A physiotherapist (a health professional who specialises in maintaining and improving movement and mobility) may give you some exercises to do. These will help to improve the strength in your knee and how well you can move it.

    Your nurse will give you some advice about caring for your healing wounds before you go home. You may be given a date for a follow-up appointment.

    The time it takes for dissolvable stitches to disappear depends on what type you have. If you have non-dissolvable stitches, these are usually removed by the practice nurse at your GP surgery a week or two after your procedure.

  • Recovery Recovering from knee arthroscopy

    If you need pain relief, you can take over-the-counter painkillers, such as paracetamol or ibuprofen. Always read the patient information that comes with your medicine and, if you have any questions, ask your pharmacist for advice.

    Having a general anaesthetic can affect you in ways you may not expect. You might find that you’re not so coordinated or that it’s difficult to think clearly. This should pass within 24 hours. In the meantime, don’t drive, drink alcohol, operate machinery or sign anything important.

    You’ll need to keep your knee and the dressings on it clean and dry. Your surgeon or nurse will tell you when you can have a bath or shower.

    Your knee is likely to feel sore and swollen. If you apply a cold compress, such as ice or a bag of frozen peas, it may help reduce swelling and bruising. Don’t apply ice directly to your skin as it can damage your skin; wrap it in a towel first.

    You’ll probably be able to drive about a week or two after a knee arthroscopy but follow your surgeon’s advice. It’s very important to let your insurance company know about your procedure.

    The time it takes to recover will depend on the type of treatment, if any, you have. You might be able to get back to your usual activities a week or two after a knee arthroscopy. However, it depends on how severe your knee problems were. It can take up to six months before you can do sports again.

    You may be able to return to work much sooner than this. However, if you do heavy physical work as part of your job, you may need longer.

    If you want to travel, wait at least a week until you fly but this will depend on what you had done during your knee arthroscopy. You may have to delay your trip if you’re planning to take a flight over three hours because of the risk of developing deep vein thrombosis (DVT). As well as following your surgeon's advice, it’s worth contacting any airline that you may be travelling with.

    Exercises to strengthen your knee 

  • Knee pain treatment on demand

    You can access a range of our health and wellbeing services on a pay-as-you-go basis, including knee arthroscopy.

  • Risks What are the risks?

    As with every procedure, there are some risks associated with a knee arthroscopy. We haven’t included the chance of these happening as they are specific to you and differ for every person. Ask your surgeon to explain how these risks apply to you.


    These are the unwanted, but mostly temporary effects you may get after having the procedure. You may have some pain and swelling around your knee after a knee arthroscopy. You will also have small scars on your knee from the cuts.


    This is when problems happen during or after the operation. The possible complications of an arthroscopy include:

    • accidental damage to the inside of your knee joint
    • an infection inside your knee joint
    • damage to your nerves, which can lead to you losing the feeling in the skin over your knee
    • bleeding into your knee joint
    • persistent pain
    • deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
  • FAQs FAQs

    What can I do to make my recovery easier?


    Aim to be as fit and healthy as possible before your operation and prepare your home for when you return.


    If you’re having a knee arthroscopy, there are certain things that it’s worth doing before your operation as they will speed up your recovery.

    It’s important to stop smoking as it can increase your chance of getting an infection and slow your recovery. If you’re overweight, you may be advised to try to lose some before your operation.

    It’s also a good idea to strengthen your upper body. This will help you to get around after the surgery if you need crutches. If possible, find out about exercises that will help to strengthen the muscles around your knee too. This will speed up your recovery and will mean you’re more prepared for the exercises your physiotherapist will give you after your operation.

    It’s a good idea to prepare your home for when you return from hospital. You might want to rearrange your furniture so you have more space to move around when you’re using crutches. Place items you use a lot where you can reach them easily. It’s also a good idea to stock up on frozen or tinned food, so you don’t have to go shopping immediately after your procedure.

    You may need some extra help during the first few days at home so see if your family or friends can stay with you.

    When can I start exercising again and what exercises are suitable?


    After your arthroscopy, it’s important to exercise regularly to restore your knee’s movement and strength. But don’t do any high-impact exercises, such as running, for at least six weeks.


    You will need to gradually rebuild the strength and movement in your knee after an arthroscopy.

    Your physiotherapist may recommend some exercises for your knee that you can do at home. These will involve stretching and tightening muscles, and bending and flexing your knee. You may have physiotherapy for several weeks after your operation.

    To begin with, take it very easy. You can then start to do some gentle exercise, such as walking. Always stop if your knee swells or if you feel any pain. If this happens, follow the PRICE procedure.

    • Protect your knee from further harm.
    • Rest your knee for two to three days, then re-introduce movement so you don’t lose too much muscle strength.
    • Ice the injured area using an ice pack or ice wrapped in a towel to reduce swelling and bruising. Don’t apply ice directly to your skin as it can damage your skin.
    • Compress the area by bandaging it to support your knee and help reduce swelling. The bandage should fit snugly but not be too tight. Take it off before you go to bed.
    • Elevate your knee to control swelling. Keep the area supported and try to keep it raised as much as possible until the swelling goes down.

    You should be able to get back to your usual activities after six to eight weeks. But this will depend on your procedure and what you had done. Your surgeon or physiotherapist will give you more information about what you can do.

    Will my knee recover completely?


    Your knee may not recover completely after your operation. It will depend on the type of damage to your knee and how severe it is.


    A knee arthroscopy can treat a variety of conditions but your recovery will depend on how badly damaged your knee is. It’s possible that you may have injured your knee in such a way that prevents it from recovering completely. Your surgeon may not know how severe your injury is until you have your arthroscopy, which gives a good view of the inside of it.

    It’s important to do the exercises your physiotherapist gives you so you recover as much fitness as possible. Don’t do any high-impact exercises, such as running, for at least six weeks.

    You should be able to get back to your normal activities after about eight weeks but this varies from person to person. Talk to your surgeon about when you can return to high-level or intense physical activity.

  • Resources Resources

    Further information


    • Knee osteochondritis dissecans. Medscape., published 28 October 2014
    • Meniscus injuries. Medscape., published 2 May 2014
    • Arthroscopic knee washout, with or without debridement, for the treatment of osteoarthritis. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), August 2007.
    • Macmull S, Gupte CM. Basic knee arthroscopy: a brief history, surgical techniques and potential complications. Orthopaedics and Trauma 2015; 29(29):6–11. doi:10.1016/j.mporth.2014.12.005
    • Singhal O, Kaur V, Kalhan S, et al. Arthroscopic synovial biopsy in definitive diagnosis of joint diseases: an evaluation of efficacy and precision. Int J App Basic Med Res 2012; 2:102–6. doi:10.4103/2229-516X.106351
    • Pigmented villonodular synovitis. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons., published November 2014
    • Meniscal injuries. British Orthopaedic Sports Trauma and Arthroscopy Association (BOSTAA)., accessed 13 February 2015
    • Get well soon - helping you to make a speedy recovery after arthroscopic operations on your knee for meniscal tears. Royal College of Surgeons of England., accessed 13 February 2015
    • Osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis Research UK., published April 2013
    • Arthroscopic radiofrequency chondroplasty for discrete chondral defects of the knee. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), June 2014.
    • Immobility, circulatory problems and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). World Health Organization., accessed 26 March 2015
    • Reichenbach S, Rutjes AWS, Nüesch E, et al. Joint lavage for osteoarthritis of the knee. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 5. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007320.pub2
    • Preparing for joint replacement surgery. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons., published June 2014
  • Has our information helped you? Tell us what you think about this page

    We’d love to know what you think about what you’ve just been reading and looking at – we’ll use it to improve our information. If you’d like to give us some feedback, our short form below will take just a few minutes to complete. And if there's a question you want to ask that hasn't been answered here, please submit it to us. Although we can't respond to specific questions directly, we’ll aim to include the answer to it when we next review this topic.

    Let us know what you think using our short feedback form
    Ask us a question
  • Related information Related information

  • Tools and calculators Tools and calculators

  • Author information Author information

    Reviewed by Rachael Mayfield-Blake, Bupa Health Content Team, March 2015.

    Let us know what you think using our short feedback form
    Ask us a question

About our health information

At Bupa we produce a wealth of free health information for you and your family. We believe that trustworthy information is essential in helping you make better decisions about your health and care. Here are just a few of the ways in which our core editorial principles have been recognised.

  • Information Standard

    We are certified by the Information Standard. This quality mark identifies reliable, trustworthy producers and sources of health information.
    Information standard logo
  • HONcode

    This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here.

    This website is certified by Health On the Net Foundation. Click to verify.

What our readers say about us

But don't just take our word for it; here's some feedback from our readers.

Simple and easy to use website - not alarming, just helpful.

It’s informative but not too detailed. I like that it’s factual and realistic about the conditions and the procedures involved. It’s also easy to navigate to areas that you specifically want without having to read all the information.

Good information, easy to find, trustworthy.

Meet the team

Nick Ridgman

Nick Ridgman
Head of Health Content

  • Dylan Merkett – Lead Editor
  • Natalie Heaton – Specialist Editor, User Experience
  • Pippa Coulter – Specialist Editor, Content Library
  • Alice Rossiter – Specialist Editor, Insights
  • Laura Blanks – Specialist Editor, Quality
  • Michelle Harrison – Editorial Assistant

Our core principles

All our health content is produced in line with our core editorial principles – readable, reliable, relevant – which are represented by our diagram.

An image showing or editorial principals

                  Click to open full-size image

The ‘3Rs’ encompass everything we believe good health information should be. From tweets to in-depth reports, videos to quizzes, every piece of content we produce has these as its foundation.


In a nutshell, our information is jargon-free, concise and accessible. We know our audience and we meet their health information needs, helping them to take the next step in their health and wellbeing journey.


We use the best quality and most up-to-date evidence to produce our information. Our process is transparent and validated by experts – both our users and medical specialists.


We know that our users want the right information at the right time, in the way that suits them. So we review our content at least every three years to keep it fresh. And we’re embracing new technology and social media so they can get it whenever and wherever they choose.

Our accreditation

Here are just a few of the ways in which the quality of our information has been recognised.

  • The Information Standard certification scheme

    You will see the Information Standard quality mark on our content. This is a certification programme, supported by NHS England, that was developed to ensure that public-facing health and care information is created to a set of best practice principles.

    It uses only recognised evidence sources and presents the information in a clear and balanced way. The Information Standard quality mark is a quick and easy way for you to identify reliable and trustworthy producers and sources of information.

    Certified by the Information Standard as a quality provider of health and social care information. Bupa shall hold responsibility for the accuracy of the information they publish and neither the Scheme Operator nor the Scheme Owner shall have any responsibility whatsoever for costs, losses or direct or indirect damages or costs arising from inaccuracy of information or omissions in information published on the website on behalf of Bupa.

  • British Medical Association (BMA) patient information awards

    We have received a number of BMA awards for different assets over the years. Most recently, in 2013, we received a 'commended' award for our online shared decision making hub.

Contact us

If you have any feedback on our health information, we would love to hear from you. Please contact us via email: Or you can write to us:

Health Content Team
Bupa House
15-19 Bloomsbury Way

Find out more Close

Legal disclaimer

This information was published by Bupa's Health Content Team and is based on reputable sources of medical evidence. It has been reviewed by appropriate medical or clinical professionals. Photos are only for illustrative purposes and do not reflect every presentation of a condition.

The information contained on this page and in any third party websites referred to on this page is not intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice nor is it intended to be for medical diagnosis or treatment. Third party websites are not owned or controlled by Bupa and any individual may be able to access and post messages on them. Bupa is not responsible for the content or availability of these third party websites. We do not accept advertising on this page.

For more details on how we produce our content and its sources, visit the 'About our health information' section.

ˆ We may record or monitor our calls.