- Motor neurone disease: assessment and management. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), 24 February 2016. www.nice.org.uk
- Pathology of motor neuron disorders. Medscape. emedicine.medscape.com, updated 28 April 2014
- Central nervous system anatomy. Medscape. emedicine.medscape.com, updated 28 June 2016
- Motor neurone disease. PatientPlus. patient.info/patientplus, last checked 24 April 2015
- Neurology. Oxford handbook of general practice (online). Oxford Medicine Online. oxfordmedicine.com, published April 2014
- Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. BMJ Best Practice. bestpractice.bmj.com, last updated 5 August 2015
- Motor neurone disease. Brain and Spine Foundation. www.brainandspine.org.uk, last checked July 2015
- Guidance on the use of riluzole (Rilutek) for the treatment of motor neurone disease. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), 23 January 2001. www.nice.org.uk
- Electromyography and nerve conduction studies. Medscape. emedicine.medscape.com, updated 9 October 2015
- What’s happening in MND research? Motor Neurone Disease Association. www.mndassociation.org, published 2016
- Stem cells and MND. Motor Neurone Disease Association. www.mndassociation.org, published 2 April 2015
- Complementary therapies. Motor Neurone Disease Association. www.mndassociation.org, last revised May 2015
- Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Medscape. emedicine.medscape.com, updated 23 March 2016
- Swallowing difficulties. Motor Neurone Disease Association. www.mndassociation.org, created August 2013
- What are the different types of clinical research? US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). www.fda.gov, last updated 24 February 2016
Reviewed by Rachael Mayfield-Blake, Freelance Health Editor, Bupa Health Content Team, September 2016.
Expert reviewer, Dr Jeremy Rees, Consultant Neurologist
Next review due: September 2019
Has our health information helped you?
We’d love to know what you think about what you’ve just been reading and looking at – we’ll use it to improve our information. If you’d like to give us some feedback, our short survey will take just a few minutes to complete. And if there's a question you want to ask that hasn't been answered here, please submit it to us. Although we can't respond to specific questions directly, we’ll aim to include the answer to it when we next review this topic.