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Dementia or something else?

Overview

Conditions that may be mistaken for dementia

Other problems that may be mistaken for dementia

The three Ds: dementia, delirium, depression

Memory loss and ageing

    • Dementia. NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries. cks.nice.org.uk, published August 2016
    • Assessment of dementia. BMJ Best Practice. bestpractice.bmj.com, updated August 2016
    • Parkinson's disease. BMJ Best Practice. bestpractice.bmj.com, updated January 2016
    • Assessment of delirium. BMJ Best Practice. bestpractice.bmj.com, updated December 2015
    • Practical Dementia Care (2nd ed. online). Oxford Medicine Online. oxfordmedicine.com, published June 2013
    • DIAZEPAM. British National Formulary. www.evidence.nhs.uk/formulary/bnf/current, accessed 21 November 2016
    • Benzodiazepines. British National Formulary. www.evidence.nhs.uk/formulary/bnf/current, accessed 29 December 2016
    • Opioid analgesics. British National Formulary. www.evidence.nhs.uk/formulary/bnf/current, accessed 21 November 2016
    • Analgesics. British National Formulary. www.evidence.nhs.uk/formulary/bnf/current, accessed 29 December 2016
    • CITALOPRAM. British National Formulary. www.evidence.nhs.uk/formulary/bnf/current, accessed 21 November 2016
    • Antimuscarinics. British National Formulary. www.evidence.nhs.uk/formulary/bnf/current, accessed 29 December 2016
    • Antipsychotic drugs. British National Formulary. www.evidence.nhs.uk/formulary/bnf/current, accessed 29 December 2016
    • Epilepsy and Seizures Medication. Medscape. emedicine.medscape.com, updated July 2016
    • Corticosteroids. British National Formulary. www.evidence.nhs.uk/formulary/bnf/current, accessed 29 December 2016
    • Vitamin B12 – Associated neurological diseases. Medscape. emedicine.medscape.com, updated August 2016
    • Vitamin B1 (Thiamine). Medscape. emedicine.medscape.com, updated February 2014
    • Alzheimer disease. Medscape. emedicine.medscape.com, updated September 2016
    • Vascular dementia. Medscape. emedicine.medscape.com, updated November 2016

    Sources for Three Ds factsheets

    • Dementia. NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries. cks.nice.org.uk, revised April 2015
    • Dementia. The MSD Manuals. www.msdmanuals.com, last reviewed February 2016
    • Dementia. PatientPlus. patient.info/patientplus, last checked May 2014
    • Delirium. NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries. cks.nice.org.uk, revised April 2015
    • Assessment of delirium. BMJ Best Practice. bestpractice.bmj.com, updated December 2015
    • Delirium. The MSD Manuals. www.msdmanuals.com, last reviewed February 2016
    • Depression. NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries. cks.nice.org.uk, revised October 2015
    • Depression. Medscape. emedicine.medscape.com, updated April 2016
    • Depression in adults. BMJ Best Practice. bestpractice.bmj.com, updated December 2015
    • Behavioral and Psychologic Symptoms of Dementia. The MSD Manuals. www.msdmanuals.com, revised April 2013
    • Assessment of dementia. BMJ Best Practice. bestpractice.bmj.com, updated September 2015
    • Psychiatry. Oxford Handbook of Geriatric Medicine (online, 2nd ed). Oxford Medicine Online. oxfordmedicine.com, published July 2012
    • Delirium. PatientPlus. patient.info/patientplus, checked August 2015
    • National Mental Health Development Unit. Let's respect toolkit for care homes. www.lifestorynetwork.org.uk, published 2011
    • Delirium: prevention, diagnosis and management. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). www.nice.org.uk, published July 2010
    • Depression and anxiety. Alzheimer's Society. www.alzheimers.org.uk, reviewed April 2015
    • Alzheimer's dementia. bestpractice.bmj.com, updated February 2016
    • Alzheimer's Disease. PatientPlus. patient.info/patientplus, last checked May 2014
    • Vascular dementia. BMJ Best Practice. bestpractice.bmj.com, updated January 2016
    • Vascular Dementia. PatientPlus. patient.info/patientplus, checked October 2014
    • Dementia with Lewy bodies. BMJ Best Practice. bestpractice.bmj.com, updated November 2015
    • Frontotemporal dementia. bestpractice.bmj.com, updated October 2015
    • Frontotemporal Dementia. PatientPlus. patient.info/patientplus, checked September 2014
    • Dementia: A state of the nation report on dementia care and support in England. Department of Health. www.gov.uk, published 2013
    • Dementia: supporting people with dementia and their carers in health and social care. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). www.nice.org.uk, updated May 2016.
    • Mental health. Oxford Handbook of General Practice (4th ed, online). Oxford Medicine Online. http://oxfordmedicine.com, published April 2014
    • Depressive disorders. The MSD Manuals. www.msdmanuals.com, reviewed November 2013
    • Depression in older adults. Royal College of Psychiatrists. www.rcpsych.ac.uk, published August 2014
    • Hypothyroidism. http://cks.nice.org.uk, revised February 2011
    • Heart failure – chronic. http://cks.nice.org.uk, published March 2016
    • Miller M. Recognizing and treating depression in the elderly. Medscape Psychiatry & Mental Health eJournal 1997;2(2)
    • Enache D, Winblad B, Aarsland D et al. Depression in dementia: epidemiology, mechanisms, and treatment. Curr Opin Psychiatry 2011;24(6):461-472. doi: 10.1097/YCO.0b013e32834bb9d4
    • Delirium: prevention, diagnosis and management. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), www.nice.org.uk, published July 2010
    • Noël P, Williams J, Unützer J et al. Depression and Comorbid Illness in Elderly Primary Care Patients: Impact on Multiple Domains of Health Status and Well-Being. Ann Fam Med 2004;2(6):555–562. doi: 10.1370/afm.143
    • Cody RA, Drysdale K. The effects of psychotherapy on reducing depression in residential aged care: a meta-analytic review. Clin Gerontol 2013; 36(1): 46-69. doi: 10.1080/07317115.2012.731474
    • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. PatientPlus. patient.info/patientplus, checked January 2011
  • Produced by Nick Ridgman, Lead Health Editor, Bupa UK Health Content Team, December 2016
    Reviewed by Professor Graham Stokes, Bupa Global Director of Dementia Care
    Next review due December 2019

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