A treatment that you have after your initial treatment for cancer. For example, chemotherapy after surgery. The aim of adjuvant therapy is to try to reduce the chance of the cancer from coming back. Adjuvant therapies include chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormone therapy and biological therapy. See also ‘neoadjuvant therapy’ below.
If your doctor describes your cancer as 'advanced', it usually means that it's spread from where it started to another part of your body. Locally advanced cancer usually means that the cancer has grown from where it started into nearby body tissues or lymph glands. See also ‘Stage’.
This is an informal term rather than a medical one. If your doctor describes your cancer as aggressive, it means it tends to grow quite quickly. The medical term that describes how quickly or slowly a cancer is likely to grow is grade. See also ‘Grade’.
This means a tumour isn’t cancer (is not malignant). Benign tumours usually grow quite slowly and don’t spread. They usually only cause problems if they grow very large, or press on other organs in your body. They can also affect you if they take up space inside your skull or release hormones.
Treatments that are (or are developed from) natural body chemicals. They may act on cancer cells directly to kill them or stop them growing. Or they may help the immune system to fight back against and kill cancer cells. Types of biological therapies include monoclonal antibodies, cancer growth inhibitors, vaccines, gene therapy and immunotherapy. They work in lots of different ways; for example, changing how cancer cells send growth signals to each other, or stopping cancers from growing new blood vessels.
A small sample of tissue taken from your tumour, either in surgery or using a needle. A histopathologist is a doctor who specialises in examining samples of tissue to help diagnose diseases. They’ll examine the sample under a microscope to see if it contains any cancer cells and if so, what type.
Something that is known to cause cancer, for example, tobacco smoke. Not everybody exposed to a carcinogen gets cancer so there are other factors that can play a part, such as your age, diet and genetic make-up.
Most cancers are carcinomas. They are cancers that start in cells of tissues that cover and line the body cavities and organs (epithelial cells).
Carcinoma in situ
A very early stage of cancer, where the cancer cells are only found in the place where they started growing in the body. So the cancer hasn’t spread to anywhere else in your body. Sometimes called stage 0 cancer.
Treatment with drugs that kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy works by killing cells that are dividing into two. Cancer cells divide more often than normal cells.
Describes how cancer cells look under a microscope. The more abnormal they are, the higher the grade. Low grade cancers tend to grow more slowly and be less likely to spread. Cancers are most often graded from one to three, or one to four.
Treatments that block the production of a hormone in your body, or stop a hormone from working. Examples include treatment that blocks testosterone production in prostate cancer and treatment that stops oestrogen from working in breast cancer. Also called endocrine therapy.
A type of biological therapy that uses the immune system to fight cancer. See also ‘Biological therapy’.
A cancer of white blood cells that starts in the bone marrow. There are several different types of leukaemia, affecting different types of white blood cell.
Lymph glands (nodes)
Glands found throughout the body that are part of the immune system. Cancer can start in the lymph glands (lymphoma). More commonly, it spreads to the lymph nodes from a cancer that started somewhere else in the body.
Another word for cancerous and the opposite of benign. A malignant tumour (cancer) grows more quickly than a benign tumour and can spread to other parts of your body.
A type of cancer that starts in pigment cells in the skin (melanocytes), either in a mole or in normal looking skin. Melanoma is the most serious form of skin cancer but can be cured if it’s removed before the cancer cells have spread.
Cancer that has spread from one part of the body to another. It’s also called secondary cancer.
A type of bone marrow cancer that starts in cells called plasma cells.
Treatment you have before your main treatment, which is usually surgery. The aim of the treatment is usually to try and shrink the cancer to make it easier to remove and to help reduce the risk of the cancer coming back in future. Neoadjuvant therapies include chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormone therapy.
Another name for an abnormal lump of cells (a tumour). A neoplasm can be non-cancerous (benign) or cancer (malignant).
Also known as supportive care, palliative care is treatment designed to help control symptoms and improve quality of life. Palliative care is often used to mean treatment for people whose illness can’t be cured, but this is not necessarily the case.
Treatment that is tailored to the biology of your specific cancer. For example, your cancer cells may have too many of a particular growth receptor, so your doctor may choose to give you a medicine that blocks that receptor. Many biological therapies can be used as part of personalised medicine. See also ‘Biological therapy’.
Where your cancer originally started in the body. If a cancer has spread, this is a secondary cancer. So, lung cancer that has spread to your liver is primary lung cancer with secondary cancer in your liver. See also ‘Secondary cancer’.
The likely outcome of your cancer. It could refer to your chance of recovery, the likelihood of your cancer coming back or, if your chance of survival is low, how long you might expect to live for.
Treatment using high energy radiation to kill cancer cells; for example, X-rays, gamma rays or protons. You most often have radiotherapy treatment from a machine outside the body, but it can also be delivered internally from implants (called brachytherapy) or radioactive injections or drugs.
When a cancer is in remission, there is no sign of it in examinations or tests. Doctors tend to talk about remission instead of cure because cancers can sometimes come back. In a partial remission, some, but not all, signs and symptoms have gone.
A type of cancer that starts in the cells of bone or other tissues that support the body, including muscle, blood vessels, cartilage and fibrous tissues.
A cancer that has spread from where it started. Some of the most common places for secondary cancers are bone, liver and lung. Where a cancer is most likely to spread depends on what type of primary cancer it is. See also ‘Primary cancer’.
A system that doctors use to describe the size of your cancer, how far it has grown and whether it has spread. This helps your doctor to choose the best treatment for you. There are usually four stages. Stage one means that the cancer is small and very localised. Stage four means the cancer has spread. There are other staging systems such as the TNM classification, which is used to describe what the tumour is like, including its size and if it has spread to your lymph nodes or to other places in your body.
A treatment that travels through the bloodstream and so reaches your whole body. All drug treatments that are injected or that you take by mouth are systemic, including chemotherapy, biological therapy and hormone therapy.
A type of treatment that directly targets cancer cells to stop them from growing and spreading. Targeted treatments are a type of biological therapy. See also ‘Biological therapy’.
A lump of cells that may or may not be cancerous (malignant or benign). A tumour is also known as a neoplasm.
- Cancer Research UK
0808 800 4040
- Macmillan Cancer Support
0808 808 0000
- Glossary. Cancer Research UK. www.cancerresearchuk.org, last updated June 2016
- NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. National Cancer Institute. www.cancer.gov, accessed May 2017
- A guide for patients with advanced cancer. European Society for Medical Oncology. www.esmo.org, published 2011
- How cancers grow. Cancer Research UK. www.cancerresearchuk.org, last updated October 2014
- What biological therapies are. Cancer Research UK. www.cancerresearchuk.org, last updated November 2014
- Can cancer be prevented? Cancer Research UK. www.cancerresearchuk.org, last updated December 2016
- How chemotherapy works. Cancer Research UK. www.cancerresearchuk.org, last updated December 2014
- Cancer grading. Cancer Research UK. www.cancerresearchuk.org, last updated October 2014
- Tumor grade. National Institute of Cancer. www.cancer.gov, last updated May 2013
- How chemotherapy works. Cancer Research UK. www.cancerresearchuk.org, last updated December 2014
- Hormone therapy for cancer. Cancer Research UK. www.cancerresearchuk.org, last updated April 2014
- Types of cancers. Cancer Research UK. www.cancerresearchuk.org, last updated October 2014
- How cancer can spread. Cancer Research UK. www.cancerresearchuk.org, last updated October 2014
- Survival. Cancer Research UK. www.cancerresearchuk.org, last updated July 2016
- What is personalized cancer medicine? Cancer.Net, last updated May 2016
- Understanding targeted therapy. Cancer.Net. www.cancer.net, last updated May 2016
- Where cancer can spread. Cancer Research UK. www.cancerresearchuk.org, last updated October 2014
- Surgical pathology. Oxford Handbook of Clinical Surgery. 4th ed. (online). Oxford Medicine Online.oxfordmedicine.com, published May 2013
- After a biopsy: making the diagnosis. Cancer.Net. www.cancer.net, approved by the cancer.net editorial board April 2015
- Graham LJ, Shupe MP, Schneble EJ, at al. Current approaches and challenges in monitoring treatment response in breast cancer. J Cancer 2014; 5(1):58–68. doi:10.7150/jca.7047
- Self study module 8: clarifying diagnosis and prognosis. Education in palliative and end-of-life care for oncology (EPECTM-O). www.cancer.gov, accessed August 2017
- Biological therapies for cancer. National Cancer Institute. www.cancer.gov, reviewed June 2013
- Cancer Research UK
We’d love to know what you think about what you’ve just been reading and looking at – we’ll use it to improve our information. If you’d like to give us some feedback, our short form below will take just a few minutes to complete. And if there's a question you want to ask that hasn't been answered here, please submit it to us. Although we can't respond to specific questions directly, we’ll aim to include the answer to it when we next review this topic.
Let us know what you think using our short feedback form
Reviewed by Laura Blanks, Specialist Health Editor, Bupa Health Content Team, July 2017
Expert reviewer Dr Adam Dangoor, Consultant Medical Oncologist
Next review due July 2020
About our health information
At Bupa we produce a wealth of free health information for you and your family. We believe that trustworthy information is essential in helping you make better decisions about your health and care. Here are just a few of the ways in which our core editorial principles have been recognised.
We are certified by the Information Standard. This quality mark identifies reliable, trustworthy producers and sources of health information.
What our readers say about us
But don't just take our word for it; here's some feedback from our readers.
“Simple and easy to use website - not alarming, just helpful.”
“It’s informative but not too detailed. I like that it’s factual and realistic about the conditions and the procedures involved. It’s also easy to navigate to areas that you specifically want without having to read all the information.”
“Good information, easy to find, trustworthy.”
Meet the team
Head of Health Content
- Dylan Merkett – Lead Editor
- Graham Pembrey - Lead Editor
- Laura Blanks – Specialist Editor, Quality
- Michelle Harrison – Specialist Editor, Insights
- Natalie Heaton – Specialist Editor, User Experience
- Fay Jeffery – Web Editor
- Marcella McEvoy – Specialist Editor, Content Portfolio
- Alice Rossiter – Specialist Editor (on Maternity Leave)
Our core principles
All our health content is produced in line with our core editorial principles – readable, reliable, relevant – which are represented by our diagram.
In a nutshell, our information is jargon-free, concise and accessible. We know our audience and we meet their health information needs, helping them to take the next step in their health and wellbeing journey.
We use the best quality and most up-to-date evidence to produce our information. Our process is transparent and validated by experts – both our users and medical specialists.
We know that our users want the right information at the right time, in the way that suits them. So we review our content at least every three years to keep it fresh. And we’re embracing new technology and social media so they can get it whenever and wherever they choose.
Here are just a few of the ways in which the quality of our information has been recognised.
The Information Standard certification scheme
You will see the Information Standard quality mark on our content. This is a certification programme, supported by NHS England, that was developed to ensure that public-facing health and care information is created to a set of best practice principles.
It uses only recognised evidence sources and presents the information in a clear and balanced way. The Information Standard quality mark is a quick and easy way for you to identify reliable and trustworthy producers and sources of information.
Certified by the Information Standard as a quality provider of health and social care information. Bupa shall hold responsibility for the accuracy of the information they publish and neither the Scheme Operator nor the Scheme Owner shall have any responsibility whatsoever for costs, losses or direct or indirect damages or costs arising from inaccuracy of information or omissions in information published on the website on behalf of Bupa.
British Medical Association (BMA) patient information awards
We have received a number of BMA awards for different assets over the years. Most recently, in 2013, we received a 'commended' award for our online shared decision making hub.
If you have any feedback on our health information, we would love to hear from you. Please contact us via email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Or you can write to us:
Health Content Team
Battle Bridge House
300 Grays Inn Road