Your lymphatic system includes your bone marrow, spleen, thymus and lymph glands (nodes). Your lymph glands make and store white blood cells called lymphocytes, ready to fight any infections you might get. Your lymphatic system also includes lymph vessels, which carry and recycle fluid (known as lymph fluid) in your body.
The image below shows where the main glands, organs and vessels of your lymphatic system are. There are groups of lymph glands in your neck, armpit and groin. You may be able to feel some of them under your skin. There are deeper lymph glands in other areas of your body, such as in your abdomen (tummy), pelvis and chest, though you can’t feel these.
There are many different types of cancer that can develop in the lymphatic system. These are called lymphomas. Hodgkin lymphoma is just one type of these cancers, and you get it in a group of lymph glands in one area of your body.
Sometimes, the cancer cells can spread through your lymph vessels to lymph glands in other parts of your body. The cancer cells may also spread further in your body to your spleen, liver, lungs or bone marrow.
Doctors separate Hodgkin lymphomas into two main groups according to how the cells look under a microscope.
- Classical type. Most people with Hodgkin lymphoma have this one.
- Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. This is rare and affects young adults more than older people.
Often, the first symptom of Hodgkin lymphoma that you’ll notice is a swelling in your neck, chest, armpit or groin. This is a swollen lymph gland, which doesn’t usually hurt. It will feel firm (like rubber) rather than hard, and these lumps can appear slowly over time. Other symptoms can include:
- sweating at night
- a fever
- unexplained weight loss
- an itchy feeling all over your body
- feeling tired
- pain in your lymph glands after you drink alcohol
- a cough
- shortness of breath
- pain in your chest or tummy
These symptoms aren't always caused by Hodgkin lymphoma, but if you have them, contact your GP.
To diagnose Hodgkin lymphoma, your GP will ask about your symptoms and examine you. They’ll also ask you questions about your medical history. Some of the symptoms of Hodgkin lymphoma are non-specific, which means they could be caused by something else. Depending on your symptoms, your GP may organise some initial tests such as blood tests and a chest X-ray to check for other possible causes. If your GP then suspects you could have Hodgkin lymphoma, they’ll refer you to a hospital specialist for further tests.
If you have swollen glands and your GP suspects it could be Hodgkin lymphoma, it’s likely that they’ll refer you to a specialist at hospital for further tests straightaway. You’ll usually get an appointment within two weeks (or two days for children).
Further tests may include having scans (such as a CT scan or positron emission tomography (PET) that look at the inside of your body). You may have a biopsy, where a sample of skin tissue, lymph gland or bone marrow is taken to look at under a microscope. If you have a biopsy taken, this may be done under local or general anaesthesia.
If you’re diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma, tests will look at whether or not the cancer has spread and how big it is. This is described by the ‘stage’ of the disease; from stage 1(the cancer has stayed within the organ it started in) to stage 4 (the cancer has spread from where it started to another part of the body). See Related information for explanations of the terminology used in cancer.
Your treatment will depend on the type of Hodgkin lymphoma you have, whether or not it has spread, and your general health. Most people have chemotherapy, and some may have radiotherapy too.
Your healthcare team
A team of professionals, called a multidisciplinary team (MDT), will guide you through your treatment. This team may include:
- a haematologist (a doctor who specialises in treating conditions that affect the blood)
- an oncologist (a doctor who specialises in cancer care)
- a radiologist (a doctor who specialises in using imaging to diagnose conditions)
- a radiation oncologist (or clinical oncologist) who uses radiation to treat conditions
- a specialist nurse
- a counsellor
They’ll explain your treatment options and help you decide that treatment is best for you.
After treatment, your team will assess whether or not there are any remaining signs of cancer. If there are, you’ll need more treatment. You’ll have regular check-ups with your doctor to check for any signs of the cancer returning. You’ll have check-ups every three months for the first couple of years, and gradually, you’ll go less often.
About eight or nine out of every 10 people with Hodgkin lymphoma go into remission after their treatment and it goes away for good. Remission means the signs and symptoms of cancer have decreased or disappeared. Your cancer can be in complete or partial remission. Complete remission means there are no signs of your cancer. Partial remission means some but not all signs have disappeared.
Chemotherapy uses medicines to destroy cancer cells. You’ll usually have these medicines through a drip into a vein in your arm. Your team may give you a few different medicines over a few months. You won’t have the medicines everyday – you’ll have breaks to allow your body to recover from the side-effects of the medicines. See our information on chemotherapy to learn about the side-effects of the treatment.
Your doctor may give you steroid medicines (e.g. prednisolone) alongside your chemotherapy. These medicines help the chemotherapy to work and you usually take them as tablets.
Radiotherapy uses X-rays to destroy cancer cells. A radiotherapy treatment takes less than 10 minutes. Your radiologist will target a beam of radiation to the cancer to shrink it. Depending on the type of Hodgkin lymphoma you have and its stage, you might have radiotherapy after chemotherapy.
You’ll need to go to the hospital for radiotherapy treatment, usually from Monday to Friday, and then have a rest over the weekend. How long your course of treatment lasts will depend on the area you’re having it on. Your doctor will let you know how long they expect you’ll need treatment for.
Monoclonal antibodies are medicines that can recognise and target cancer cells. They aren’t used very often for people with Hodgkin lymphoma. But you may be given a monoclonal antibody medicine called rituximab if you have the nodular lymphocyte predominant type.
If you’ve already had treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma but it comes back, your doctor may give you an antibody treatment called brentuximab.
Stem cell transplant
If you’ve had chemotherapy to treat Hodgkin lymphoma and it hasn’t worked, or the cancer comes back, you might need a higher dose of chemotherapy. This will kill off your stem cells, which your body needs to make new blood cells.
To stop you becoming unwell, you’ll be offered a stem cell transplant. This is an injection of stem cells into your body to replace the ones you lost. Your body will use the stem cells to make new blood cells to replace the ones the high-dose chemotherapy destroys. For more information about this treatment option, see our FAQ Stem cell transplant.
Doctors don’t know exactly why people develop Hodgkin lymphoma yet, but there are some things that increase your chance of getting it. These include if you:
- have a weakened immune system (for example, if you have HIV/AIDS, or you’re taking medicines that suppress your immune system)
- have the Epstein–Barr virus (which causes glandular fever)
- have previously had non-Hodgkin lymphoma
- are a man, as it’s slightly more common in men than women
- are around 25, or 50 to 60, as it’s more common in these age groups (although it can affect people of all ages)
- are a smoker
Where do the cells for a stem cell transplant for Hodgkin’s lymphoma come from?
The cells are usually taken from you before you have high-dose chemotherapy, but sometimes they come from another person (usually a close relative).
If your first chemotherapy for classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma hasn’t worked well, you may need a higher dose of chemotherapy and a stem cell transplant. Your body can use the stem cells to make new blood cells to replace the ones the high-dose chemotherapy destroys.
The stem cells are usually taken from your own blood or bone marrow before you begin high-dose chemotherapy. If the stem cells are collected from your blood, you’ll be given injections of a substance called ‘growth factor’ first. This will increase the number of stem cells in your blood. The stem cells are collected through a needle and drip (usually in your arm).
If the stem cells are collected from your bone marrow, a doctor will use a needle to take bone marrow from your pelvic bone. You will have a general anaesthetic, which means you will be asleep during the procedure. Your stem cells will be put back in your body through a drip after you have finished your high-dose chemotherapy. This is known as an autologous stem cell transplant or autologous bone marrow transplant.
Sometimes, you may need a stem cell or bone marrow transplant from another person. This is called an allogeneic transplant. It will usually be from a close family member because their cells are most likely to match your own. You may need to have this type of transplant if Hodgkin's lymphoma is affecting your bone marrow. Another reason you may need an allogeneic transplant is if your cancer has returned after a previous stem cell transplant of your own cells.
How will a stem cell transplant for Hodgkin’s lymphoma affect me?
The side-effects usually come from the high-dose chemotherapy you have before the transplant, not the transplant itself. This treatment affects everyone differently and the length of time it takes to recover varies.
Your immune system won't be very strong after high-dose chemotherapy and you’ll be more susceptible to infections. Although your stem cell transplant will help your body get stronger, this can take several weeks. You’ll need to stay in hospital for this time and will probably be nursed in a private room to stop you getting infections.
Most side-effects come from the high-dose chemotherapy rather than the transplant. You’ll feel very tired. You may also lose your appetite, get a sore mouth and have sickness and diarrhoea.
Your doctor might give you antibiotics and mouthwashes to help prevent you getting an infection and you’ll probably need to have blood transfusions. Once recovered, you will need to have new immunisations against diseases, as you will have lost any immunity you previously had.
Some people need to have a stem cell or bone marrow transplant from another person. This is called an allogeneic transplant. If you have this type of transplant, there’s a chance you could develop a condition called ‘graft versus host disease’. This happens when white blood cells donated from the other person attack tissues in your body because they don’t recognise them. This causes symptoms such as diarrhoea, weight loss and rashes. You will be given medicines to prevent this.
Will I be able to have children after treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma?
Chemotherapy and radiotherapy can reduce your chances of having children or cause infertility. Sometimes this is only temporary. You may be able to have your sperm or eggs frozen before starting treatment, so you can use them to try to have children in the future.
Hodgkin's lymphoma is commonly treated with chemotherapy. Some chemotherapy medicines can cause infertility, particularly if you have very high doses. Radiotherapy may also affect your fertility if used in your pelvic or abdominal area. Ask your doctor about your treatment and whether it can affect your chances of having children.
It's sometimes possible for a clinic to freeze your eggs (if you’re a woman) or sperm (if you’re a man) before you start treatment. This is so you can use them with infertility treatment to have children in the future.
Sometimes, it’s not possible to freeze and store sperm or eggs before starting chemotherapy. Be aware that, unfortunately, infertility treatments don’t always work.
Your doctor will be able to give you more information about your options and let you know about sources of further information and support.
Your doctor will usually take the stem cells from your own blood before you begin high-dose chemotherapy or, much less frequently, from your bone marrow. If for some reason this isn’t possible, the stem cells will need to come from another person. This will usually be from a close family member, such as your brother or sister, because their cells are most likely to match your own. If you don’t have any siblings, or they aren’t a good match, you might have stem cells from a donor who’s unrelated to you. For information about what happens, see Bone marrow (stem cell) transplant.
This treatment affects everyone differently and the length of time it takes to recover varies. But the side-effects usually come from the high-dose chemotherapy you have before the transplant, not the transplant itself.
After having a stem cell transplant, you’ll be in hospital for around three weeks. At first, you’ll probably have a sore mouth, feel sick and have diarrhoea. You’ll have fewer white blood cells in your body after your stem cell transplant so will be more at risk of getting infections. You’ll need to take antibiotics to prevent these. And your red blood cell count will be down too, which might make you feel tired and breathless. You’ll need to have blood transfusions to top up your red blood cells.
Once you leave hospital and go home, you’ll continue to make a steady recovery but might still feel tired and weak. It can take about three to six months to recover fully and go back to work.
You’ll need to have new vaccinations against diseases, because you will have lost any immunity you previously had. You’ll also be offered the annual flu vaccine.
Both chemotherapy and radiotherapy can reduce your chances of having children or cause infertility.
Some chemotherapy medicines can cause infertility, particularly if you have very high doses. Radiotherapy may also affect your fertility if you have it in your pelvic or abdominal area (tummy).
You might be able to freeze your eggs or sperm before you start treatment. But remember it’s not always possible to do this before you start treatment, and infertility treatments don’t always work. Ask your doctor about your treatment and what your options are.
- Eichenauer DA, Engert A, André M, et al. Hodgkin's lymphoma: ESMO clinical practice guidelines. Ann Oncol 2014; 25(suppl 3):iii70–iii75. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdu181
- Hodgkin's lymphoma. PatientPlus. patient.info/patientplus, last checked 14 May 2014
- Mckay P, Fielding P, Gallop-Evans E, et al. Guidelines for the investigation and management of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Br J Haematol 2015; 172:32–43. doi:10.1111/bjh.13842
- Haematological cancers – recognition and referral. NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries. cks.nice.org.uk, last revised November 2015
- Hodgkin's lymphoma. BMJ Best Practice. bestpractice.bmj.com, last updated 26 January 2017
- Lymphatic system anatomy. Medscape. emedicine.medscape.com, updated 19 September 2013
- The lymphatic system and cancer. Cancer Research UK. www.cancerresearchuk.org, last reviewed 29 October 2014
- Overview of the lymphatic system. The MSD Manuals. www.msdmanuals.com, last full review/revision October 2015
- Haematological malignancies. Oxford handbook of oncology (online). Oxford Medicine Online. oxfordmedicine.com, published September 2015
- Map of medicine. Lymphoma. International view. London: Map of medicine; 2016 (issue 4)
- Suspected cancer: recognition and referral. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), 23 June 2015. www.nice.org.uk
- Bone marrow test. Cancer Research UK. www.cancerresearchuk.org, last reviewed 13 April 2015
- Treatment decisions. Cancer Research UK. www.cancerresearchuk.org, last reviewed 29 December 2014
- NCI dictionary of cancer terms. National Cancer Institute. www.cancer.gov, accessed 27 February 2017
- Hodgkin lymphoma. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. www.nccn.org, published 2015
- Radiotherapy treatment. Cancer Research UK. www.cancerresearchuk.org, last reviewed 6 January 2015
- Brentuximab vedotin. NICE British National Formulary. www.evidence.nhs.uk/formulary/bnf/current, reviewed 28 April 2017
- Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Medscape. emedicine.medscape.com, updated 23 April 2016
- Side effects of bone marrow and stem cell transplants. Cancer Research UK. www.cancerresearchuk.org, last reviewed 17 March 2015
- Autologous stem cell transplant. Lymphoma Association. www.lymphomas.org.uk, last reviewed July 2016
- The green book immunisation of individuals with underlying medical conditions. Gov.UK. www.gov.uk, last updated 29 September 2016
- Radiation therapy for Hodgkin disease. American Cancer Society. www.cancer.org, last revised 23 May 2016
We’d love to know what you think about what you’ve just been reading and looking at – we’ll use it to improve our information. If you’d like to give us some feedback, our short form below will take just a few minutes to complete. And if there's a question you want to ask that hasn't been answered here, please submit it to us. Although we can't respond to specific questions directly, we’ll aim to include the answer to it when we next review this topic.
Let us know what you think using our short feedback form
Reviewed by Rachael Mayfield-Blake, Freelance Health Editor, May 2017
Expert reviewer, Dr Prem Mahendra, Consultant Haematologist
Next review due May 2020
About our health information
At Bupa we produce a wealth of free health information for you and your family. We believe that trustworthy information is essential in helping you make better decisions about your health and care. Here are just a few of the ways in which our core editorial principles have been recognised.
We are certified by the Information Standard. This quality mark identifies reliable, trustworthy producers and sources of health information.
What our readers say about us
But don't just take our word for it; here's some feedback from our readers.
“Simple and easy to use website - not alarming, just helpful.”
“It’s informative but not too detailed. I like that it’s factual and realistic about the conditions and the procedures involved. It’s also easy to navigate to areas that you specifically want without having to read all the information.”
“Good information, easy to find, trustworthy.”
Meet the team
Head of Health Content
- Dylan Merkett – Lead Editor
- Graham Pembrey - Lead Editor
- Laura Blanks – Specialist Editor, Quality
- Michelle Harrison – Specialist Editor, Insights
- Natalie Heaton – Specialist Editor, User Experience
- Fay Jeffery – Web Editor
- Marcella McEvoy – Specialist Editor, Content Portfolio
- Alice Rossiter – Specialist Editor (on Maternity Leave)
Our core principles
All our health content is produced in line with our core editorial principles – readable, reliable, relevant – which are represented by our diagram.
In a nutshell, our information is jargon-free, concise and accessible. We know our audience and we meet their health information needs, helping them to take the next step in their health and wellbeing journey.
We use the best quality and most up-to-date evidence to produce our information. Our process is transparent and validated by experts – both our users and medical specialists.
We know that our users want the right information at the right time, in the way that suits them. So we review our content at least every three years to keep it fresh. And we’re embracing new technology and social media so they can get it whenever and wherever they choose.
Here are just a few of the ways in which the quality of our information has been recognised.
The Information Standard certification scheme
You will see the Information Standard quality mark on our content. This is a certification programme, supported by NHS England, that was developed to ensure that public-facing health and care information is created to a set of best practice principles.
It uses only recognised evidence sources and presents the information in a clear and balanced way. The Information Standard quality mark is a quick and easy way for you to identify reliable and trustworthy producers and sources of information.
Certified by the Information Standard as a quality provider of health and social care information. Bupa shall hold responsibility for the accuracy of the information they publish and neither the Scheme Operator nor the Scheme Owner shall have any responsibility whatsoever for costs, losses or direct or indirect damages or costs arising from inaccuracy of information or omissions in information published on the website on behalf of Bupa.
British Medical Association (BMA) patient information awards
We have received a number of BMA awards for different assets over the years. Most recently, in 2013, we received a 'commended' award for our online shared decision making hub.
If you have any feedback on our health information, we would love to hear from you. Please contact us via email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Or you can write to us:
Health Content Team
Battle Bridge House
300 Grays Inn Road