Daily requirements during training
Your daily intake of carbohydrates should be timed around your training during the week, whether it’s high-intensity, or a longer session. This will determine the amount of carbohydrate you should have on that day. This is essential to help with performance and optimise recovery. This means that diet is vital in restoring glycogen to the muscles and liver. You can achieve this by following the table below.
The table shows the amount of carbohydrate you should aim to consume per day, depending on your daily activity. For more about which kinds of exercise fit in each category, see our information on Exercise – getting started.
|Activity||Description||Carbohydrate targets (g / kg / day*)|
|Light||General physical activity, low-intensity or skill-based, lasting around 30–60min per day, 3–4 times per week||3-5|
|Moderate||Moderate exercise programme, around 1 hour per day||5-7|
|Moderate to high intensity||Moderate to high intensity; 2–3 hours per day, 5–6 times per week||5-8|
|Endurance||Endurance exercise programme, moderate to high intensity, 1–3 hours per day||6-10|
|High-volume intense||High-volume intense exercise, 3–6 hours (1 or 2 sessions) per day, 5–6 times per week||8-10|
|Extreme commitment||Moderate to high intensity of more than 4–5 hours per day||8-12|
|*g / kg / day refers to how many grams of carbohydrate per kilogram of body weight you need. So, someone who is 80kg and training at a moderate intensity should have 400–560g of carbohydrate per day.|
Carbohydrate intake before your event
Muscle fatigue is one of the most common problems during endurance events. It’s often caused by low muscle glycogen stores resulting in: a reduction in performance and work rate, impaired skill, and increased perception of effort. Therefore, topping up liver and muscle glycogen stores is important to keep you going as these are relatively limited.
This table shows the amount of carbohydrate you should aim to consume in the day or two before your event.
|Activity||Description||Carbohydrate targets (g / kg / day*)||Comments|
|More than 90 minutes||Event lasting longer than 90 minutes||10-12||10–12g/kg every 24 hours over a 48-hour period prior to the start of the event|
|Less than 90 minutes||Event lasting no longer than 90 minutes||7-12||24 hours prior to event start|
Carbohydrate loading (1–2 days before your event)
If your event involves more than 90 minutes of sustained and/or intermittent exercise, you might want to consider ‘carbohydrate loading’ for 48 hours before the start. This is a strategy that aims to maximise your glycogen stores before endurance exercise. If the event lasts no longer than 90 minutes, you can achieve carbohydrate loading just 24 hours before the start.
Examples of foods rich in carbohydrate:
|25g of carbohydrate per 100g of pasta||23g of carbohydrate per 100g of brown rice|
|66g of carbohydrate per 100g of oats||21g of carbohydrate per 100g of quinoa|
|20g of carbohydrate per 100g of sweet potato||72g of carbohydrate per 100g of buckwheat|
|23g of carbohydrate per 100g of banana||61g of carbohydrate per 100g of chickpeas|
You should choose nutrient-rich carbohydrates. Read our Information on carbohydrates to find out more about these complex carbs.
1–4 hours before your event
In this period you should have 1–4g/kg of carbohydrate. You should also avoid foods high in fat, protein and fibre; this may help with gastrointestinal issues during the event. Carbohydrate-rich snacks and drinks can help meet your energy needs.
You may also want to consider carbohydrates that are low on the glycaemic index (GI), meaning the glucose is released into your bloodstream slowly. This may provide a more sustained source of fuel if you can’t take on carbs during the event. Find out which foods are low on GI in our Information on carbohydrates.
During the event
Depending on the length of the event, you may also need to take on some carbohydrates while you’re on the go. The table below outlines your nutritional requirements during an event. Trial these amounts during training to see how your body reacts.
|Duration of event||Carbohydrate target||Comments|
|Less than 45 minutes||None||If the event lasts no longer than 45 minutes, no carbohydrate is needed. Stores will not deplete in this time, as long as you’ve followed the above guidelines.|
|45-75 minutes||Small amounts if needed, or mouth rinse||
During sustained high-intensity events lasting 45–75 minutes, it may help to have small sips of sports drinks. But your activity shouldn’t be limited by a lack of muscle glycogen, as long as you’ve followed the above guidelines.
It’s also thought that frequently sipping a carbohydrate solution can stimulate sensors in the mouth and brain, improving your motor output and muscular performance.
You might also consider mouth rinsing (rinsing a carbohydrate solution around the mouth for around 5–10 seconds before spitting it out), especially when you need high power output.
More than 2.5 hours
Up to 90g
You should try out this approach before your event, to find an ideal refuelling plan that also aids hydration and doesn’t cause discomfort in your gut and stomach. A range of isotonic sports drinks and energy gels can provide carbohydrates quickly and easily.
Products providing multiple carbohydrates, eg glucose and fructose mixture, might be absorbed more quickly.
After the event
To help with your recovery, in the 4–6 hours after your event you should take on 1–1.2g/kg/h of carbohydrates. So, if you weigh 70kg, you’d have 70–84g of carbohydrates per hour: 280–336g of carbohydrates.
If you’ve got the energy left, you could whip yourself up a tasty pasta dish to give you these recovery carbs. Try this delicious tomato and caper linguine from Jamie Oliver.
You could also try a healthy smoothie. This is ideal for fast recovery and a carb boost.
- Jeukendrup AE. Nutrition for endurance sports: Marathon, triathlon, and road cycling. Journal of Sports Sciences 2011: 29 (sup1); 25-27. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2011.610348.
- Jeukendrup AE. Carbohydrate intake during exercise and performance. Nutrition 2004: 20(7-8); 669–677. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2004.04.017
- Potgieter S. Sport nutrition: A review of the latest guidelines for exercise and sport nutrition from the American College of Sport Nutrition, the International Olympic Committee and the International Society for Sports Nutrition. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2013;26(1):6-16.
- Burke LM et al. Carbohydrates for training and competition. Journal of Sports Sciences 2011: 29(sup1); S17-S27. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2011.585473.
- Nutrition and Athletic Performance. Joint position statement of Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise March 2016: 48(4); 543–568. doi: 10.1249/MSS.000000000000085.
- Macronutrients and energy balance. Oxford Handbook of Nutrition and Dietetics (2nd ed, online). Oxford Medicine Online. Published January 2012.
- Chambers ES, Bridge MW, Jones DA. Carbohydrate sensing in the human mouth: effects on exercise performance and brain activity. Journal of Physiology 2009: 587(8); 1779-1794. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2008.164285.
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Produced by Nick Ridgman, Head of Health Content, Bupa Health Content Team, October 2017
Reviewed by Neil Gunby, Health Adviser, and Adam Keenan, Lifestyle Health Adviser
Next review due October 2020
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