Injured runner holding his knee

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury

What is anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury?

Symptoms: what are the signs?

Causes: why has this happened?

Treatment options: treatments to suit you

Treatment options: self help

An image describing the acronym PRICE

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An image describing the acronym HARM

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Treatment options: physiotherapy

Treatment options: medicines

Treatment options: surgery

More information from Bupa Knee Clinic

    • Acute knee injuries. Brukner & Khan’s Clinical Sports Medicine (5th ed, online). McGraw-Hill Medical. csm.mhmedical.com, published 2017
    • Knee ligament injuries. PatientPlus. patient.info/patientplus, last checked 15 February 2017
    • Anterior cruciate ligament injury. Summary. BMJ Best Practice. bestpractice.bmj.com, last reviewed February 2018
    • Anterior cruciate ligament injury. Medscape. emedicine.medscape.com, updated 16 June 2016
    • Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. OrthoInfo. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. orthoinfo.aaos.org, last reviewed March 2014
    • Sprains and strains. NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries. cks.nice.org.uk, last revised March 2016
    • Knee pain – assessment. NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries. cks.nice.org.uk, last revised August 2017
  • Reviewed by Pippa Coulter, Freelance Health Editor, April 2018
    Expert reviewer, Elisabeth Morgans, Bupa Physiotherapist
    Next review due April 2021

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