- Anxiety and stress-related disorders. Oxford Handbook of Psychiatry (online). Oxford Medicine Online. oxfordmedicine.com, published March 2013
- Panic Disorder. PatientPlus. patient.info/patientplus, last checked December 2016
- Panic disorders. BMJ Best Practice. bestpractice.bmj.com, last updated April 2017
- Panic attacks and panic disorder. MSD Manual. msdmanuals.com, last full review/revision May 2014
- Anxiety, Panic and Phobias. Royal College of Psychiatrists. www.rcpsych.ac.uk, last updated September 2015
- Let's get physical: the impact of physical activity on wellbeing. Mental Health Foundation. 2013. www.mentalhealth.org.uk
- Anxiety and panic attacks. Mind. www.mind.org.uk, last updated February 2015
- Manzoni GM, Pagnini F, Castelnuovo G, et al. Relaxation training for anxiety: a ten-years systematic review with meta-analysis. BMC Psychiatry 2008; 8(41). doi:10.1186/1471-244X-8-41
- Hyperventilation. PatientPlus. patient.info/patientplus, last checked September 2015
- Livermore N, Sharpe L, McKenzie D. Prevention of panic attacks and panic disorder in COPD. Eur Respir J 2010; 35: 557–63; DOI: 10.1183/09031936.00060309
Reviewed by Graham Pembrey, Lead Health Editor, Bupa Health Content Team, September 2017
Expert reviewer, Dr Rahul Bhattacharya, Consultant Psychiatrist
Next review due September 2020
Did our information help you?
We’d love to hear what you think. Our short survey takes just a few minutes to complete and helps us to keep improving our health information.