1. Get stretching
As we continue to age, we might notice our body parts feeling stiffer. This is due to changes happening to our muscles and joints. For example, the water content of our tendons and joints reduces, making them stiffer. Our ligaments also shorten, causing a loss in some flexibility.
However, by doing simple stretching and muscle strengthening exercises at least twice a week, you can prevent your muscles from becoming shortened, and in turn improve the range of motion and lubrication around your joints. Pilates and yoga are great exercise routines for helping you to stretch and maintain your flexibility, as well as improving your balance and core strength.
2. Strengthen your muscles
On average, by the time we reach our seventies we will have lost 25 percent of our muscle mass. Research suggests that this is not only due to the ageing process, but to being inactive. Typically, when we lose muscle mass as we age, we can also put on fat due to having a lower metabolic rate and eating more calories than we burn off. This is generally unhealthy for you, as extra fat tissue can increase your risk of type 2 diabetes.
But the good news is that if you start doing strength training exercises, you can regain and maintain some of this muscle loss. Exercises that use resistance, such as gym weight machines or free weights, can not only strengthen your muscles, but improve your brain function, and help to reduce blood pressure and high cholesterol too.
Try doing strength exercises two or more times a week that work all the major muscles in your body, including the back, abdomen, chest, shoulders and arms.
3. Keep your bones strong
Your bone mass (how dense your bone is) usually starts to naturally decline from your forties onwards. For women, this decline can accelerate after they reach the menopause, which typically starts in the early fifties, or sometimes earlier. For both men and women, low bone mass can make your bones brittle and more likely to break (osteoporosis).That’s why it’s important to strengthen your bones by doing weight-bearing exercises. This involves working against gravity to make your bones denser, as well as strengthening your muscles.
Exercises that are good for making your bones stronger include walking, dancing, walking up stairs and jogging.
4. Embrace aerobic exercise
Our ability to use oxygen during exercise (aerobic capacity) also reduces with age. This can have an impact on our ability to do daily physical activities in our fifties and sixties, such as walking. But research has shown that people who start and maintain greater levels of aerobic exercise have better mental capacity and fitness as they grow older. This suggests that taking part in regular aerobic exercise to can help you to stay fit and maintain your aerobic capacity for longer.
If you are generally fit and have no health conditions that affect your mobility, government guidelines suggest trying at least 150 minutes of moderate aerobic activity such as walking, golf, swimming, badminton and cycling every week. Or, to get the same benefits you could try 75 minutes of more intense aerobic activity such as aerobics, fast swimming, tennis or jogging.
Other reasons to stay active
Around two-thirds of adults spend more than two hours per day watching TV and using the computer. But, there is now increasing evidence to suggest that sedentary behaviour, such as sitting, is now considered a risk factor for health, despite how much exercise we do. So as a general rule experts say we should be aiming to break up long periods of sitting with light exercise of one to two minutes, such as walking up stairs.
A final word of advice
So if you haven’t been very active up until now it’s time to get started. When building up your physical strength, remember that allowing your body time to rest and recover is just as important to being active. And as your body will be much more prone to injuries and strains, always seek advice from qualified experts when starting a new exercise, or using a new piece of gym equipment.
You might be interested in reading our other articles in this series on exercising in your forties, thirties and twenties.