Memory loss and ageing
As all of us get older, our memory naturally starts to get a little worse. It may take us longer to learn and recall information. This age-related memory loss doesn’t necessarily cause people too much bother, provided they are given enough time to learn and remember things.
Sometimes age-related memory loss can be confused with dementia. But dementia is actually something quite different.
Memory loss and dementia
Rather than one specific condition, the term ‘dementia’ actually refers to a set of symptoms. These include memory difficulties, but also problems with thinking, reasoning, learning, language and daily activities.
There are several different conditions that cause dementia. The most common ones are Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies and frontotemporal dementia.
Alzheimer’s disease causes between half and three-quarters of all cases of dementia. Memory loss is the main symptom for Alzheimer’s, and often the first one that’s noticeable. It’s usually short-term or recent memory that is affected in the early stages. For example, the person may recall details about their life from many years ago, but not remember what they had for lunch.
In vascular dementia (which causes around one in five cases of dementia), memory loss is also typical in the earlier stages, though it may not be the symptom that’s noticed first.
Dementia is progressive, meaning the symptoms get worse over time. Memory loss will become more noticeable, and will start to affect longer-term memories as the condition progresses.
Why do memory loss and dementia get mixed up?
There are a number of reasons why age-related memory loss may be mistaken for dementia, and vice versa.
The main reason is probably because the chances of getting dementia increase the older we get. Estimates suggest that:
- from ages 65–69, around three in 200 people have dementia
- from ages 75–79, this rises to around 12 in every 200 people
- by ages 85–89, about 40 in every 200 people have dementia
The fact that dementia-related memory loss is often mild at first makes it easy to dismiss as just being age-related. There may also be an element of denial. The person and their relatives may not want to believe that there is a serious problem, preferring to blame any memory problems on simply getting older.
Should I be worried about memory loss?
If you’re concerned about a loved one’s memory problems, there are things you can look out for to help you decide what to do next.
First of all, are there patterns in the memory problems? If they’re taking longer to remember things, but getting there in the end, this probably isn’t anything to worry about. However, other memory difficulties may be more of a concern, such as:
- not recalling things that happened recently
- forgetting conversations or repeating questions
- losing or misplacing belongings
You should also look out for other early signs of dementia, such as:
- changes in behaviour or personality
- difficulty speaking and understanding
- becoming easily confused
- struggling with daily tasks like driving, cooking or housework
It could also be a concern if your loved one is not as worried about their memory problems as you are; this is fairly common with dementia. Someone experiencing natural age-related memory loss is more likely to be aware of it, and frustrated by it.
If you’re worried about a loved one’s memory problems, and you think it could be the early signs of dementia, try and encourage them to visit their GP. They will be able to find out a little more, and can refer them to a specialist for assessment if necessary.
This may not be an easy conversation to have, especially if your loved one does not recognise their memory difficulties, or does not see them as a big problem. Alzheimer’s Society has some helpful advice about how to approach this discussion.
If you’re worried about dementia yourself, there are steps you can take to stay healthy and reduce the factors that can contribute to dementia. These include watching your diet and looking after your heart and mind. For more detail, read our information on reducing your risk of dementia.