Injured runner holding his knee

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction

What is anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury?

Who needs ACL reconstruction?

Alternatives to ACL reconstruction

Preparation for ACL reconstruction

What happens during an ACL reconstruction?

What to expect afterwards

Recovering from an ACL reconstruction

Complications of ACL reconstruction

Pros and cons of ACL reconstruction

Side-effects of ACL reconstruction


More information from Bupa Knee Clinic

    • Knee ligament tears NSCCG. Map of Medicine., published October 2016
    • Acute knee injuries. Brukner & Khan's Clinical Sports Medicine (4th ed. online). McGraw-Hill Medical., published 2012
    • ACL Injury. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons., last updated September 2009
    • Anterior cruciate ligament injury. BMJ Best Practice., last updated October 2016
    • Anterior cruciate ligament injury treatment and management. Medscape., last updated June 2016
    • ACL reconstruction: information for patients. Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre., accessed January 2017
    • Nursing patients requiring preoperative care. Oxford Handbook of Adult Nursing (Online). Oxford Medicine Online., published 2009
    • Knee Arthroscopy. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons., last updated September 2016
    • Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham., last updated April 2013
    • Frobell RB, Roos EM, Roos HP, et al. Supplement to a randomized trial of treatment for acute anterior cruciate ligament tears. N Engl J Med 2010; 363:331–42
    • Anterior cruciate ligament pathology treatment and management. Medscape., last updated June 2016
    • Anterior cruciate ligament pathology clinical presentation. Medscape., last updated June 2016
    • Mohtadi NGH, Chan DS, Dainty KN, Whelan DB. Patellar tendon versus hamstring tendon autograft for anterior cruciate ligament rupture in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 9. Art. No.: CD005960. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005960.pub2
    • Anterior cruciate ligament pathology treatment and management. Medscape., last updated June 2016
    • Kruse LM, Gray B, Wright RW. Rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a systematic review. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2012; 94(19):1737–48. doi:  10.2106/JBJS.K.01246
    • Shaerf DA, Pastides PS, Sarraf KM, et al. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction best practice: a review of graft choice. World J Orthop 2014; 5(1):23–29. doi:  10.5312/wjo.v5.i1.23
    • Legnani C, Terzaghi C, Enrico B, et al. Management of anterior cruciate ligament rupture in patients aged 40 years and older. J Orthop Traumatol 2011; 12(4):177–84. doi:  10.1007/s10195-011-0167-6
    • Knee ligament injuries. PatientPlus., last checked February 2017
    • Treuting R. Minimally invasive orthopaedic surgery: arthroscopy. Ochsner J 2000; 2(3):158-63. PMCID: PMC3117522
    • Personal communication, Mr Roger Tillman, Orthopaedic Surgeon, April 2017
  • Reviewed by Laura Blanks, Specialist Health Editor, Bupa Health Content Team, April 2017
    Expert reviewer, Mr Roger Tillman, Orthopaedic Surgeon
    Next review due April 2020

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