- Urinary incontinence in women. BMJ Best Practice. bestpractice.bmj.com, last reviewed December 2018
- Urinary incontinence. PatientPlus. patient.info, last edited November 2016
- Incontinence – urinary in women. NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries. cks.nice.org.uk, last revised June 2015
- Urinary incontinence in women: management. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), November 2015. www.nice.org.uk
- Renal medicine and urology. Oxford handbook of general practice (online). Oxford Medicine Online. oxfordmedicine.com, published April 2014
- Urinary incontinence in adults. The MSD Manuals. www.msdmanuals.com, last full review/revision July 2018
- Incontinence chart. PatientPlus. patient.info, accessed January 2019
- Constipation in adults. PatientPlus. patient.info, last edited January 2016
- Urinary incontinence guidelines. European Association of Urology, 2017. uroweb.org
- Intermittent catheterisation. PatientPlus. patient.info, last edited February 2014
- Urinary Incontinence Relevant Anatomy. Medscape. emedicine.medscape.com, updated December 2015
- Mesh Safety alert. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. www.rcog.org.uk, updated April 2019
- Overactive bladder. PatientPlus. patient.info, last edited August 2015
- Sacral nerve stimulation for urge incontinence and urgency-frequency. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), 2004. www.nice.org.uk
- Woodley SJ, Boyle R, Cody JD, et al. Pelvic floor muscle training for prevention and treatment of urinary and faecal incontinence in antenatal and postnatal women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2017, Issue 12. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007471.pub3
- Urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse in women: management. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), April 2019. www.nice.org.uk.
- Personal communication, Dr Raj Persad, Consultant Urological Surgeon, March 2019
Reviewed by Michelle Harrison, Specialist Health Editor, Bupa Health Content Team, July 2019
Expert reviewer Professor Raj Persad, Consultant Urological Surgeon
Next review due July 2022
Did our information help you?
We’d love to hear what you think. Our short survey takes just a few minutes to complete and helps us to keep improving our health information.