- Carotid artery dissection. Medscape. emedicine.medscape.com, updated September 2015
- Biller J, Sacco R, Albuquerque F, et al. Cervical arterial dissections and association with cervical manipulative therapy: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. 2014; 45:3155–74
- Cardiovascular system anatomy. Medscape. emedicine.medscape.com, updated August 2014
- Overview of stroke. The MSD Manuals. www.msdmanuals.com, last full review/revision November 2013
- Vertebral artery dissection. Medscape. emedicine.medscape.com, updated November 2015
- Ischaemic stroke. BMJ Best Practice. bestpractice.bmj.com, last updated December 2015
- Ischemic stroke. Medscape. emedicine.medscape.com, updated November 2015
- Stroke and transient ischaemic attack in over 16s: diagnosis and initial management. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), 2008. www.nice.org.uk
- Aneurysms and Dissection of Arteries. PatientPlus. .www.patient.info, last checked February 2016
- Magnetic resonance imaging. PatientPlus. patient.info, last checked January 2013
- Joint Formulary Committee. British National Formulary (online) London: BMJ Group and Pharmaceutical Press. www.medicinescomplete.com, accessed 9 March 2016
- About the GCC. General Chiropractic Council. www.gcc-uk.org, accessed 9 March 2016
- Warfarin. Medscape. reference.medscape.com, accessed 9 March 2016
- Haematology. Oxford handbook clinical medicine (online). Oxford Medicine Online. oxfordmedicine.com published January 2014
- Hanelinea M, Rosnerberg A. The etiology of cervical artery dissection. Chiropr Med. 2007 Summer; 6(3):110–20.
- Micheli S, Paciaroni M, Corea F, et al. Cervical artery dissection: emerging risk factors. Open Neurol J 2010; 4:50–55. doi:10.2174/1874205X01004010050
- Cranial nerve lesions. PatientPlus. www.patient.info, last checked 16 June 2014
Reviewed by Natalie Heaton, Specialist Health Editor, Bupa Health Content Team, May 2016.
Expert reviewer, Dr Ahamad Hassan, Consultant Neurologist and Stroke Physician.
New review due May 2019.