- Cancer incidence for common cancers. Cancer Research UK. www.cancerresearchuk.org, last reviewed January 2018
- Early detection of cancer. World Health Organization. www.who.int, accessed November 2018
- Colorectal cancer. BMJ Best Practice. bestpractice.bmj.com, last reviewed October 2018
- Suspected cancer: recognition and referral. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), last updated July 2017
- Rectal cancer clinical presentation. Medscape. emedicine.medscape.com, updated May 2018
Reviewed by Laura Blanks, Specialist Health Editor, Bupa Health Content Team, November 2018.
This information has been updated in line with our bowel cancer page, which was reviewed by Mr Stephen Pollard, Consultant Surgeon, May 2018.